You may examine the studies of a participating country or participating author by clicking on the country in which you are interested or clicking on the author of your choice.

Participating Countries:

Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic , Denmark, Finland, France, Germany , Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy , Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands, UK.

 

Participating Authors:

Aarnoutse, Adams, Ahonen, Airaksinen, Alegria, Anula, Arnqvist, Asensio, Baddeley, Bakker, Bardon, Bast, Bastien-Toniazzo, Bechennec, Behrndt, Beran, Beveridge, Bishop, Bjoernsdottir, Bogdanowicz, Boland, van Bon, Bonnet, Borstroem, Bouma, Bressoux, Brooks, Bruegelmann, Bryant, Cain, Caravolas, Cary, Casalis, Casas, Chevrie-Muller, Chipchase, Cole, Content, Corcella, Cornoldi, Cross, Cudina-Obradovic, Deeny, Defior, Deimel, Dellatolas, Demarey, Demont, Diez, Dudas, Duncan, Ecalle, Ehrlich, Einarsdottir, Einsiedler, Elbro, Ellis, van Elsacker, Ennemoser, Escoriza, Esser, Fawcett, Fernandez, Ferrer, Fonseca, Franzkowiak, Freda, Frith, Frost, Gadeyne, Gasteiger-Klicpera, Gathercole, Genard, Ghesquiere, Goetry, Golding, Gombert, Gomez, Gonzalez, J.J., Gonzalez, J.V., Gonzalez, M.R., Gorman, Goulandris, Goutard, Govaere, Grievink, Guimard, Gustafson, Haekkinen-Riku, Haeyrinen, Hanke, Hatcher, Helbig, Helmke, Hennighausen, Hingst, Hoffmann, Holopainen, Hulme, Hurry, Hutchison, Jacobson, Jacquier-Roux, Jaklewicz, Jansen, de Jong, Julkunen, Kaczmarek, Kaplan, Karlsdottir, Kipffer-Piquard, Kirschhock, Kjeldsen, Klenberg, Klicpera, Klimusova, Kok, Kolic-Vehovec, Kolinsky, Koolstra, Korkman, Kozminsky, E., Kozminsky, L., Krasowicz-Kupis, Kremin, Kuespert, Lacert, Landerl, Lara, Layton, van Leeuwe, van der Leij, Leiwo, Leseman, Levi, Lewandowska, Leybaert, Licht, Louis-Alexandre, Lundberg, Lyster, Lyytinen, H., Lyytinen, P., Manders, Marchand, Martschinke, Matejcek, Matijevic, Mayringer, Mazzoncini, Mecik, Merida, Mommers, Morais, Mousty, Muter, Myrberg, Naeslund, Nathan, Nicolson, Niedersoe, Niemi, Nocus, Novotna, Nunes, Oakhill, Olofsson, Onghena, Oud, Palaeothodorou, Pardo, Pasa, Pekkanen, Penge, Peltomaa, Perez, Peters, Petersen, D.K., Petersen, O.-P., Porpodas, Pugh, Ragano, Ragnarsdottir, Rebelo, Reitsma, Remschmidt, Roennberg, Roth, Rumeu, Saada-Robert, Samuelsson, Santos, Schabmann, Schagen, Scheerer-Neumann, Schmidt, Schneider, Schonewille, Schulte-Koerne, Seigneuric, Serenius-Sirje, Serniclaes, Seymour, Shay, Siegel, Simonardottir, Skowronek, Smekal, Snowling, Sochacka, Solheim, Sprenger-Charolles, Stackhouse, Stainthorp, Steffen, Stoep, Stothard, Stuart, Sturma, Sylva, Tall, Terreni, Tezak, Toennessen, Treinies, Tressoldi, Tretti, Tudela, Upton, Vagnerova, Valdois, Vale, Valtin, Vauras, Verhaeghe, Verhoeven, Vermeer, Visé, Visinko, Voeten, Wahlman-Neuronen, Warnke, Watteau, Weinberger, Weinert, Wesseling, Whyte, Wilkin, Wimmer, Wszeborowska-Lipinska, Zelinkova, Zlab, Zorman.

C

Austria

Principal investigator(s):

Christian Klicpera

Barbara Gasteiger-Klicpera

Alfred Schabmann

Address: University of Vienna

Department of Psychology

Universitaetsstr. 7

A-1010 Vienna

AUSTRIA

E-mail-address of the contact-person: christian.klicpera@univie.ac.at

Title of study:

Viennese longitudinal studies of reading and writing development – First grade study.

Key words:

reading and spelling phonological awareness prediction of reading and spelling beginning of reading

Beginning date of study (month, year): 10-83

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 06-87

Number of completed waves: 9

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 9

Time interval between waves (average): 2 mths. in the 1st grade, then 1 yr.

Maximum sample size: 120

Size of core sample: 82

Age range at first data collection: 76-87 mths.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

Duisburger Vorschulentwicklungstest (Duisburg preschool development test)

To ascertain the preparedness of the children, a general test of school readiness was given to all children

Early literacy skills

To ascertain the alphabetic knowledge and the already acquired reading skills the children were given the task to read and write their own names and names of fellow students as well as all letters they knew at the beginning of 1st grade

Boston Naming Test

 

To assess language development at the start of schooling, active vocabulary and the word finding ability of the children was tested

Rapid Naming of Pictures

The time to rapidly name a series of pictures was used as another indicator of language ability

Tests of phonological awareness

 

 

Different aspects of phonological awareness (ability to indicate the position of phonemes in a word, phonemic segmentation and blending) were tested at the beginning of the first grade and three times during the first grade

Reading tests specific for different basal readers

Children were given a reading test which tested the ability to read words (consisting of letters already introduced in the reading instruction) which were known and practiced (in the reading lessons) versus unknown and of pseudowords (5 times during first grade)

Wiener Leseprobe (Viennese Reading Test)

 

At the end of the first grade, a traditional standardized oral reading test was given to all children

Zuericher Lesetest (Zuerich Reading Test)

At the end of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th grades, this standardized reading test was given

Diagnostischer Rechtschreibtest fuer die 1., 2. bzw. 3.Klasse (Diagnostic Spelling Test for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd grade) and the spelling subtest of general school achievement test for the fourth grade (AST4)

At the end of each school year, children received a grade specific spelling test

Grade specific reading comprehension tests

At the end of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th grade, children received reading comprehension tests to broaden the included aspects of literacy development

 

Abstract:

The study sought to determine the beginning of reading development in the first grade and the prediction of reading ability at the end of the first and the following grades by general and specific developmental factors. By testing the children every two months during the first grade, it was hoped to gain a more detailed insight into the rapidly evolving reading skills and the accompanying changes of developing phonological awareness. Children were recruited from whole-day schools so that the rather extensive test program interferred minimally with school routines. It could be shown that most children acquired rather rapidly the ability to read not only (from the reading instruction) known but also unknown words and pseudowords once the corresponding letters were introduced. Poor readers lagged severely behind in the ability to read unknown words but also in their abilty to read already practised words. The development of reading skills was predicted by the level of insight into the phonological principle at the start of schooling (in addition to the prediction by the alphabetic knowledge). However, phonological awareness rapidly evolved during the first two months of reading instruction, and there was a strong interaction between this development and the development of reading skills.

Publications:

Klicpera,C. & Innerhofer,P. (1985). Das Unterrichtsverhalten des Lehrers als Einflussvariable auf die Leseentwicklung von Erstklaesslern. In: D.Albert (Hrsg.) Bericht ueber den 34.Kongress der Deutschen Gesellschaft fuer Psychologie in Wien 1984. Bd.2. Goettingen: Hogrefe.

Klicpera,C. & Schachner-Wolfram,S. (1988). Entwicklung der Lesefaehigkeit waehrend des ersten Schuljahres. Heilpaedagogische Forschung, 14, 27-35.

Klicpera,C. & Schachner-Wolfram,S. (1988). Entwicklung der Lesefaehigkeit waehrend des ersten Schuljahres: 2.Entwicklung des Leseverhaltens. Heilpaedagogische Forschung, 14, 36-43.

Klicpera,C. (1989). The reading development of normal and poor readers in the first grade: How helpful is the concept of developmental stages for the understanding of reading acquisition in German-speaking children. In: M.Bambring, F.Loesel & H.Skowronek (Hrsg.) Children at risk: Assessment, longitudinal research, and intervention. Berlin, New York: de Gruyter (S.97-118).

Klicpera,C. & Gasteiger-Klicpera,B. (1989). Die Entwicklung des Lesens und Schreibens bei Kindern mit Lese- und Rechtschreibschwierigkeiten. In: L.Dummer-Smoch (Hrsg.) Legasthenie 1988. Bericht ueber den Kongress 1988 des Bundesverbandes Legasthenie. Hannover: Bundesverband Legasthenie (S.49-66).

Klicpera,C., Gasteiger-Klicpera,B. & Schabmann,A. (1993). Lesen und Schreiben - Entwicklung und Schwierigkeiten: Die Wiener Laengsschnittuntersuchungen ueber die Entwicklung, den Verlauf und die Ursachen von Lese- und Schreibschwierigkeiten in der Pflichtschulzeit. Bern: Huber Verlag.

 

 

 

 

 

 

I

Austria

Principal investigator(s): Christian Klicpera

Barbara Gasteiger-Klicpera

Alfred Schabmann

Address: University of Vienna

Department of Psychology

Universitaetsstr. 7

A-1010 Vienna

AUSTRIA

E-mail-address of the contact-person: christian.klicpera@univie.ac.at

Title of study:

Viennese longitudinal studies of reading and writing development – The development in the higher grades.

Key words:

reading acquisition spelling acquisition writing ability phonological awareness instructional settings language abilities classroom observation behavioral disorders parent-child interactions remedial intervention

Beginning date of study (month, year): 02-85

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 06-92

Number of completed waves: 5

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 5

Time interval between waves (average): 1 yr. in the primary school, then 4 yrs.

Maximum sample size: 541

Size of core sample: 283

Age range at first data collection: 89-103 mths.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: yes

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups: 1

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups: 1

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month): 1/2 yrs. (some children received supplemental inter-vention for 1, others for 2 yrs., either in the 2nd or the 3rd grade or in both; the decision was up to the classroom teacher; the influence of intervention on reading and spelling development was compared)

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month): 1 hr./week

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

Wiener Leseprobe (Viennese Reading Test), Zuericher Lesetest (Zuerich Reading Test), Invidual Reading Test

 

Oral reading tests were used to chart the development of reading ability; the Zuerich Reading Test was given at each testing interval to chart the development of reading ability over the school years. In addition, the (self developed) Individual Reading Test was administered to a selected group to compare the reading of words and nonwords

Diagnostischer Rechtschreibtest fuer die 2. bzw. 3.Klasse (Diagnostic Spelling Test for the 2nd and for the 3rd grade9 (DRT2, DRT3), spelling subtests of other school achievement tests (AST2, AST4), Rechtschreibtest fuer die 7.-9.Schulstufe (Spelling Test for the 7th-9th grade) ((RST7-9)

At each measurement point, a standardized spelling was administered; the spelling tests used were grade-specific, although two tests (DRT2, DRT3) were adminstered three times (in the 2nd, 4th and 8th grade) to compare the development of the spelling ability. In addition an analysis of the spelling errors on these tests was performed.

Reading comprehension tests (subtests of school achievement tests and self developed)

At each measurement point, children were given silent reading tests to determine the reading comprehension.

Writing of a story and answering questions to the story after reading the story silently

 

To compare writing ability with reading and spelling ability, children had to write a story. This task was given twice, at the end of the 4th and the 8th grade.

Boston Naming Test, Rapid Naming of Pictures, subtests from the Heidelberger Sprachentwicklungstest (Heidelberg language development test) (HSET), learning of word lists, immediate and delayed reproduction of Rey-Osterrieth´s Komplexer Figur

A subsample of poor readers (N=99) and a control group of average readers (N=104) was given an extensive battery of language and visuomotor tests at the end of second grade.

Adaptives Intelligenzdiagnostikum (AID) (intelligence test modeled after the Wechsler Intellgenztest), Kognitiver Faehigkeitstest (cognitive ability test) (KFT4-13)

 

 

At the end of the 2nd grade, the subsamples of poor and average readers were individually administered six subtests of an intelligence test (AID); the whole group received four subtests of the KFT4-13 in group session at the end of the 4th grade. This was necessary to compare the development of children with specific and nonspecific reading retardation (dyslexics and garden variety poor readers)

Tests of phonological awareness

 

At the beginning of the 3rd and at the end of the 8th grade, children were given phonological awareness tests (saying the rest of words and nonwords and leaving out a specified phoneme)

Teacher questionaires

In order to compare test results on reading and spelling development with the impression of teachers, and to compare the emotional and behavioral development of children with and without reading and spelling difficulties, teachers were given questionnaires at the end of the 2nd, 4th and 8th grade.

 

 

Parent interviews and questionnaires

 

Parents were asked at the same intervals not only about the behavioral development, but also about their attempts to help the children and about the parent-school relationship

Child interviews and questionnaires for the children

To gain more insight in the emotional aspects of reading and spelling development, subsamples of poor and average readers were interviewed in the 2nd and 8th grade, and all children were given questionnaires at the end of 8th grade.

Classroom observation concerning reading instruction

In 2nd grade, each class was observed for about five hours to document the kind of reading instruction and the opportunities for reading and spelling in class

 

 

Abstract:

The study sought to analyze the long-term development in reading and spelling of an unselected larger group of school children and to determine the characteristics of children with reading and spelling difficulties. We traced the development of nearly all children in 23 Viennese classrooms (N=541) from the beginning of 2nd grade to the end of 8th grade. The main emphasis was on the study of the development of oral reading - speed and accuracy in reading words and nonwords, and of the development of spelling and of writing and in the attempt to identify subgroups of children with difficulties in the acquisition of literacy. In addition to the analysis of the reading and spelling processes, the study also sought to identify factors that caused the manifestation and further development of difficulties in this area. Therefore, the cognitive abilities of children were investigated. Interviews with parents concentrated on the possibilities of the parents to help this children, whereas observations of classroom instruction sought to analyze what kind of instruction the children received in different classrooms. The study included also an intervention part where the supplemental instruction for children with reading and spelling disabilities was analyzed by observing these lessons and studying the results of the intervention longitudinally. One further topic was the comorbidity of learning and behavioral difficulties, especially in the longitudinal perspective.

It could be shown that the group with difficulties in the acquisition of literacy was not homogeneous, neither crossectionally nor longitudinally, and that many influence factors seemed to be at work in the development and maintenance of these difficulties. Despite a generally great stability of difficulties, there were some children who grew out of their initial difficulties. However, this was unrelated to the intervention efforts at school and seemed more related to the reading behavior of these children at home. Difficulties in reading, spelling and writing must also be treated - according to the results - somewhat differently in regard to the cognitive abilities of the children.

Publications:

Klicpera,C. & Gasteiger-Klicpera,B. (1989). Die Entwicklung des Lesens und Schreibens bei Kindern mit Lese- und Rechtschreibschwierigkeiten. In: L.Dummer-Smoch (Hrsg.) Legasthenie 1988. Bericht ueber den Kongress 1988 des Bundesverbandes Legasthenie. Hannover: Bundesverband Legasthenie (S.49-66).

Gasteiger-Klicpera,B. & Klicpera,C. (1989). Legastheniker-Foerderkurse an den Grundschulen: Ein geeignetes Foerdermodell? Ergebnis einer Evaluationsstudie an den Wiener Schulen. In: L.Dummer-Smoch (Hrsg.) Legasthenie 1988. Bericht ueber den Kongress 1988 des Bundesverbandes Legasthenie. Hannover: Bundesverband Legasthenie (S.272-290).

Klicpera,C., Gasteiger-Klicpera,B. & Huetter,E. (1993). Die Legasthenikerfoerderung in zwei Wiener Schulbezirken. Eine Evaluationsstudie einer schulinternen Foerdermassnahme. In: Bundesministerium fuer Unterricht und Kunst (Hrsg.) Was macht die Foerderung effektiv? Kontroverse (?) Konzepte zur Legasthenikerbetreuung. Wien: Ketterl-Verlag (S.41-147).

Klicpera,C., Gasteiger-Klicpera,B. & Schabmann,A. (1993). Lesen und Schreiben - Entwicklung und Schwierigkeiten: Die Wiener Laengsschnittuntersuchungen ueber die Entwicklung, den Verlauf und die Ursachen von Lese- und Schreibschwierigkeiten in der Pflichtschulzeit. Bern: Huber Verlag,.

Klicpera,C. & Schabmann,A. (1993). Do German-speaking children have a chance to overcome reading and spelling difficulties? A longitudinal survey from the second until the eighth grade. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 8, 307-323.

Klicpera,C., Schabmann,A. & Gasteiger-Klicpera,B. (1993). Lesen- und Schreibenlernen waehrend der Pflichtschulzeit: Eine Laengsschnittuntersuchung ueber die Haeufigkeit und Stabilitaet von Lese- und Rechtschreibschwierigkeiten in einem Wiener Schulbezirk. Zeitschrift fuer Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie, 21, 214-225.

Klicpera,C. & Schabmann,A. (1993). Die Haeufigkeit von emotionalen Problemen und Verhaltensauffaelligkeiten im Unterricht und der Zusammenhang mit Lese- und Rechtschreibschwierigkeiten: Ergebnisse einer Laengsschnittuntersuchung. Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie, 42, 358-363.

Klicpera,C. & Gasteiger-Klicpera,B. (1994). Linkshaendigkeit und Legasthenie: Kein Beleg fuer die Rechtsverschiebungstheorie bei Wiener Kindern, aber Hinweise auf Verzerrungen bei der Auswahl von Kindern fuer Foerdermassnahmen. Paediatrie und Paedologie, 29, 11-15.

Klicpera,C. & Gasteiger-Klicpera,B. (1994). Sind die Lese- und Rechtschreibleistungen von Buben staerker von der Unterrichtsqualitaet abhaengig als jene von Maedchen? Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie, 43, 2-8.

Klicpera,C. & Gasteiger-Klicpera,B. (1994). Die langfristige Entwicklung der muendlichen Lesefertigkeit bei guten und schwachen Lesern. Zeitschrift fuer Entwicklungspsychologie und paedagogische Psychologie, 26, 278-290.

Klicpera,C., Gasteiger-Klicpera,B. & Schabmann,A. (1994). Wieweit unterscheiden sich durchschnittliche Leser mit Rechtschreibschwierigkeiten von Kindern mit Lese- und Rechtschreibschwierigkeiten? Verlauf, Art der Rechtschreibfehler und Lernvoraussetzungen. Zeitschrift fuer Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie, 22, 87-96.

Klicpera,C., Gasteiger-Klicpera,B. & Schabmann,A. (1994). Was kennzeichnet isolierte Schwierigkeiten beim Rechtschreiben? Heilpaedagogische Forschung, 20, 19-26.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

Austria

Principal investigator(s):

Heinz Wimmer

Karin Landerl

Heinz Mayringer

Address: University Salzburg

Department of Psychology

Hellbrunnerstr. 34

A-5020 Salzburg

AUSTRIA

E-mail-address of the contact-person: heinz.wimmer@sbg.ac.at

Title of study:

Dyslexia: Identification of at-risk children and specification of their early learning difficulties

Key words:

dyslexia phonological skills phonological awareness phonological memory skills phonological memory skills prediction of reading and spelling

Beginning date of study (month, year): 03-94

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 06-98

Number of completed waves: 4 with whole sample, additional 2 cross-sectional

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): +1

Time interval between waves (average): 1 yr.

Maximum sample size: 623 boys

Size of core sample: 550

Age range at first data collection: 70 - 97 mths.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? yes

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

rhyme/onset identification

phonological awareness

naming speed, articulation, visual search

access of phonological long-term representations

pseudoword repetition

phonological short-term memory

word learning, phonological word representations LTM

storage of phonological word forms

non-verbal IQ, non-verbal skills

control variables

Salzburg Reading and Spelling Test

gain norm-related r/s scores

 

Abstract:

The study investigates cognitive contributions to dyslexia. More than 600 boys were initially tested at the beginning of their first school year (age 6) with a battery of phonological and non-verbal (visual, visuo-motorical) tasks. Reading and spelling were assessed at the end of Grades 1, 2, and 3. Cross-sectional assessments - comparing dyslexic children with control peers - of a broad range of cognitive abilities were conducted at the end of Grades 2 and 4 (data from the latter time are not analysed yet).

Comparisons of children diagnosed as dyslexic at the end of Grade 2 and 3, respectively, and age matched control children led to following results:

In sharp contrast to findings from English-speaking children, phonological awareness (onset and rhyme identification) did not proof to be strongly associated with reading and spelling impairment.

The dyslexic children showed a marked deficit in phonological short-term memory (repeating single pseudowords or pseudoword pairs). A striking impairment of dyslexic children was also found for a long-term storage of phonological word forms (learning new words, recognition of existing words). In the word learning tasks, immediate repetition of the words did not pose any problems. Concerning the recognition of existing words (e.g., Ventilator-Ventivator-Ventiletor as options presented via headphones) it is important that groups were perfectly matched on receptive vocabulary.

The dyslexic children also displayed a reduced speed of retrieving familiar phonological word forms from long-term memory via visual retrieval cues (naming of objects or figures). Statistical control of visual and articulatory components of the demand led to conclude that actually the access of the phonological word forms was slower in the dyslexic children.

On several non-verbal tests the dyslexic children were comparable with the control children (visual search, finger localization, peg moving, balancing).

Publications:

Mayringer, H., Wimmer, H. & Landerl, K. (1998). Die Vorhersage frueher Lese- und Rechtschreibschwierigkeiten: Phonologische Schwaechen als Praediktoren. Zeitschrift fuer Entwicklungspsychologie und Paedagogische Psychologie, 30, 57-69.

Mayringer, H. & Wimmer, H. (1998). Das Lernen neuer phonologischer Wortformen bei Lese-Rechtschreibschwaeche. In J. Glueck, M. Jirasko & B. Rollett (Hg.), Perspektiven psychologischer Forschung in OEsterreich (Teil 2, S. ???-???). Wien: WUV.

Mayringer, H., Wimmer, H. & Landerl, K. (in press). Phonological skills and literacy acquisition in German: How strong is the relationship during the first year of school? In P. Reitsma & L. Verhoeven (Eds.), Problems and interventions in literacy development. Dordrecht: Kluwer.

Mayringer, H. & Wimmer, H. (1998). Learning three new names: Evidence for a phonological learning deficit of (surface) dyslexic children. Manuscript submitted for publication, University of Salzburg.

Mayringer, H. & Wimmer, H. (1998). Kognitive Defizite lese-rechtschreibschwacher Kinder. Manuskript eingereicht zur Publikation, Universitaet Salzburg.

Wimmer, H., Mayringer, H. & Landerl, K. (1998). Poor reading: A deficit in skill-automatization or a phonological deficit? Scientific Studies of Reading, 2, 321-340.

Wimmer, H., Mayringer, H., Raberger, T. & Stadler, B. (1998). Reading and balancing: Evidence against the automatization deficit explanation of developmental dyslexia. Manuscript submitted for publication, University of Salzburg.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

Austria

Principal investigator(s): Heinz Wimmer

Heinz Mayringer

Karin Landerl

Address: University Salzburg

Department of Psychology

Hellbrunnerstr. 34

A-5020 Salzburg

AUSTRIA

E-mail-address of the contact-person: heinz.wimmer@sbg.ac.at

Title of study:

Precursors of reading and spelling difficulties

Key words:

early cognitive deficits reading and spelling

Beginning date of study (month, year): 10-96

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 06-00

Number of completed waves: 3

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 4

Time interval between waves (average): 1 yr.

Maximum sample size: approx. 365

Size of core sample: 300

Age range at first data collection: 6;6 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

phonological short-term memory

test 1 - 6: beginning Grade 1

learning new words

 

phonological segmentation

 

confrontation naming

 

naming speed

 

letter knowledge

 

word reading accuracy & speed

test 7 - 9: end Grade 1

pseudoword reading accuracy & speed

 

spelling

 

text reading

test 10 & 11: end Grade 3 + end Grade 4

spelling

 

 

 

Abstract:

Aims of both longitudinal studies are

(1) prediction of children with reading & spelling difficulties

(2) identification of early cognitive deficits of children with reading & spelling difficulties

Measures are from following domains:

(1) phonological awareness

(2) phonological memory (short-term)

(3) naming speed

(4) control measures: visual motor speed, IQ

Findings show

(1) naming speed deficits are more predictive than phonological awareness or phonological memory deficits

(2) there are differences in early cognitive deficits between reading fluency disabled readers and reading accuracy disabled readers

Publications:

Wimmer, H., Mayringer, H., & Landerl, K. The double-deficit hypothesis and learning to read a more regular orthography. Submitted.

Wimmer, H., Mayringer, H., & Landerl, K. (1998). Poor reading: a deficit in skill-automatization or a phonological deficit? Scientific studies of Reading, 2 (4), 321-340.

Mayringer, H., Wimmer, H., & Landerl, K. (1998). Phonological skills and literacy acquisition in German. In P. Reitsma & L. Verhoeven (Eds.), Problems and interventions in literacy development. (pp. 147-161). Dordrecht: Kluwer.

Mayringer, H., Wimmer, H. & Landerl, K. (1998). Die Vorhersage frueher Lese- und Rechtschreibschwierigkeiten: Phonologische Fertigkeiten als Praediktoren. Zeitschrift fuer Entwicklungspsychologie und Paedagogische Psychologie, 30 (2), 57-69.

C

Belgium

Principal investigator(s):

Els Gadeyne

Pol Ghesquiere

Patrick Onghena

Address: Katholieke Universiteit Leuven

Afdeling Orthopedagogiek

Vesaliusstraat 2

B- 3000 Leuven

BELGIUM

E-mail-address of the contact-person: Els.Gadeyne@ped.kuleuven.ac.be

Title of study:

The relationship between academic achievement and psychosocial functioning of primary school children. A prospective study including home- and school-information.

Key words:

learning disabilities behavioral disorders psychosocial functioning structural equation modelling

Beginning date of study (month, year): 10-97

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 02-01

Number of completed waves: 1

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 4

Time interval between waves (average): 6 mths.

Maximum sample size: 370

Size of core sample: yet unknown

Age range at first data collection: 5 - 6 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other: correlation study with structural equation modelling

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

Sequencing and Language for Kindergarten Children (Cito, 1992, 1996)

tests the school readiness of the children in their last kindergarten school year

Reading and writing achievement (leerlingvolgsysteem of C.S.B.O., Dudal, 1997, 1995)

tests the reading and writing abilities in the first and second grade

Tempotest Calculating Abilities (De Vos, 1992) and Dudal-test for calculation ability (1994, 89, 92)

tests the calculating abilities in the first and second grade

Child Behaviour Checklist: Parent and Teacher Form (Achenbach, 1991)

questionnaire for parents and teachers on children´s behaviour problems

The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children (Harter & Pike)

domain-specific questionnaire on children´s self-esteem

The Pictorial Self-Evaluation Scale (Verschueren & Marcoen, 1993)

global questionnaire on children´s self-esteem

Sociometrics in the class (Vaugh & Haager, 1994)

social status of each child in its class

own scales

achievement motivation and attributions for school success and failure

Nijmegen Questionnaire on Parenting Behaviour (Gerris et al., 1993)

questionnaire for parents on their parenting behaviour and values

own sheet

static family variables such as family composition, level of education of the parents, parents´ occupational status

Questionnaire `Care for Students with School-/Learning Problems´ (Maes, Vandenberghe&Ghesquière, 97)

lists the accomodations made by schools/teachers for children with school-/learning problems

Questionnaire `Impact on Students´

teachers´ view on impact on children (efficacy)

Questionnaire `Orientation in Education´ (Maes & Waeytens, 1990)

teachers´ orientation on students versus on subject matter

Questionnaire `View on Intelligence´ (Dweck et al., 1995)

Teachers´ view on intelligence as an entity or an incremental construct

 

Abstract:

Aim of the study: Recent international literature abundantly documents the frequent co-existence of learning and behaviour problems. There is yet a lot to investigate about the reasons and processes that link these two sets of problems. With this study, we want to describe the dynamic relation between academic achievement and psychosocial functioning in primary school children. Besides behaviour (problems), we also assess self-esteem, motivation and social status in the class as elements of psychosocial functioning. From an ecological point of view, teacher and family factors are included (e.g. teachers´ feelings of efficacy, accommodations made by schools/teachers towards students with school problems, parenting behaviour and parenting values). Sample and procedure: The initial sample consists of 370 kindergarten children at the age of 5 to 6 years. By means of four waves with an average time interval of six months, we will follow the children up to halfway their second grade. At each measurement point, the children will be tested on their level of (pre-)academic achievement, and questioned on their self-esteem, achievement motivation and social status. At the same time, parents and teachers are questioned on the children’s behaviour and on parenting/teaching variables. The nature of our research questions requires a multilevel analysis. In order to gain insight in the relationship between the different variables we will apply structural equation modelling techniques.

Publications:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

Belgium

Principal investigator(s):

Nathalie Genard

Philippe Mousty

Jesus Alegria

Alain Content

Jacqueline Leybaert

Jose Morais

Address: Universite Libre de Bruxelles

Laboratoire de Psychologie Experimentale

Av. F.D. Roosevelt (C.P. 191)

B-1050 Bruxelles

BELGIUM

E-mail-address of the contact-person: ngenard@ulb.ac.be

Title of study:

Subtypes of developmental dyslexia: A longitudinal approach of the unique vs. multiple sources of impairments.

Key words:

developmental dyslexia subtypes of dyslexia

Beginning date of study (month, year): 04-96

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 10-98

Number of completed waves: 3

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 3

Time interval between waves (average): 1 yr.

Maximum sample size: 75

Size of core sample: 38

Age range at first data collection: 10;6 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? yes

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other: evolution of the surface and phonological sub-groups isolated by the regression method

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

Lobrot, 1973 (subtest L3)

standardized reading comprehension test

MIM test of the BELEC battery (Mousty, Leybaert, Alegria, Content & Morais, 1994)

reading of words and pseudowords matched in frequency, length and graphemic complexity

REGUL test of the BELEC battery (Mousty et al., 1994)

reading of regular and irregular words matched in frequency and length

ORTHO3 test of the BELEC battery (Mousty et al., 1994)

spelling of words with consistent and inconsistent graphemes

 

 

Abstract:

According to the hypothesis of multiple sources of specific impairments, two mechanisms, one phonological and the other lexical, contribute to the processing of written word recognition. Delays or disorders in the development of visual abilities could lead to a surface pattern, characterized by poor irregular word reading, whereas delays or disorders in the development of phonological abilities could lead to a phonological pattern, characterized by poor pseudoword reading. According to the unique phonological deficit theory, a severe disability would cause phonological dyslexia. A less severe trouble would cause surface dyslexia because the phonological strategy might be used but would not be efficient enough to create and strengthen orthographic representations in the lexical system. In the framework of a longitudinal study, the hypothesis of different specific impairments would predict a relative stability of the profiles. The phonological profile would not evolve to the surface profile because this latter is the result of a visual trouble. However, if there is a unique phonological impairment, children who receive the benefit of a phonic instruction at school should evolve from the phonological profile to the surface profile. In order to isolate sub-groups of dyslexics, we used the regression method proposed by Castles & Coltheart (1993) and identified 42 surface dyslexics and only 3 phonological dyslexics from a sample of 75 dyslexic children (Genard et al., 1998). A part of the dyslexic sample (38 children) was assessed in April 96, June 97 and November 98 on the same measure. Surface dyslexics showed a significant improvement in reading comprehension, but not in reading of pseudowords, indicating a ceiling in their phonological abilities and a mild phonological deficit. Their progress in their general reading abilities is not associated with an improvement of their decoding abilities. Phonological dyslexics improved in pseudoword reading, suggesting that they are still sensitive to the phonic instruction given at school. Surface dyslexics sufficiently improved their irregular word reading to catch an harmonious profile of reading up, at the end of the third testing. Among the three phonological cases, only one case presented a phonological profile at the end of the third testing. The other two improved in pseudoword but not in irregular word reading and therefore displayed a surface profile at the time of the second evaluation. At the end of the third assessment, one of these children catch an harmonious profile up. This transition to the surface profile is not surprising if one considers that a certain mastery of phonological mediation constitutes a prerequisite to the development of orthographic processes. This result also confirms the hypothesis of a unique phonological deficit.

Publications:

Genard, N. (1996). Developmental dyslexia and dysgraphia: longitudinal analysis of reading and spelling patterns. In P. Reitsma & L. Verhoeven (Eds.), Problems in literacy acquisition: causes and interventions. Paedologisch Instituut - VU Amsterdam, The Netherlands (p.21).

Genard, N., Content, A., Mousty, P., Alegria, J., Leybaert, J. & Morais, J. (1997). Subtypes of developmental dyslexia. In C. Hulme & M. Snowling (Eds.), Dyslexia: Biological Bases, Identification & Intervention. Athenaeum Press Ltd, Gateshead, Tyne & Wear (p.39).

Genard, N., Mousty, P., Alegria, J. & Morais, J. (1999). Hypothesis of a unique phonological deficit in developmental dyslexia: what about the phonological and surface profiles? In C. Braet & F. Vander Linden (Eds.), Annual Meeting of the Belgian Psychological Society. Belgian Psychological Society, Ghent (p.12).

Genard, N., Mousty, P., Content, A., Alegria, J., Leybaert, J. & Morais, J. (1997). Distinct profiles of developmental dyslexia. In A. Cleeremans, R. Kolinsky & P. Mousty (Eds.), Proceedings of the 50th Anniversary Meeting of the Belgian Psychological Society. Belgian Psychological Society, Brussels (p.45).

Genard, N., Mousty, P., Content, A., Alegria, J., Leybaert, J. & Morais, J. (1998). Methods to establish subtypes of developmental dyslexia. In P. Reitsma & L. Verhoeven (Eds.), Problems and interventions in literacy development. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

Belgium

Principal investigator(s):

Vincent Goetry

Regine Kolinsky

Philippe Mousty

Address: Universite Libre de Bruxelles

Laboratoire de Psychologie Experimentale

50, Av. F.D. Roosevelt (C.P. 191)

B-1050 Bruxelles

BELGIUM

E-mail-address of the contact-person: vgoetry@ulb.ac.be

Title of study:

Longitudinal study of the development of the metaphonological and orthographic skills in monolinguals and bilinguals and their impact on the metaphonological and orthographic representation of their native language.

Key words:

bilingualism acquisition of literacy cross-linguistic differences

Beginning date of study (month, year): 10-98

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 06-01

Number of completed waves: 1

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 5

Time interval between waves (average): 6 - 8 mths.

Maximum sample size: 200

Size of core sample: 200

Age range at first data collection: 5 - 6 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? yes

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

MATRIX

evaluation of non-verbal reasoning

EVIP (French and Dutch adaptation of the PPVT-R)

evaluation of passive vocabulary

Tapping (syllabic)

assess sensitivity to several metaphonological units: syllable, onset/rime, phoneme

Syllabification

assess sensitivity to several metaphonological units: syllable, onset/rime, phoneme

segmentation

assess sensitivity to several metaphonological units: syllable, onset/rime, phoneme

reading and writing tests

assess reading and writing skills + correlation with metaphonological tasks

 

 

Abstract:

While several studies have shown that inter language differences in phonological, orthographic and rhythmic characteristics may lead to differential development rates of the multidimensional phonological and orthographic abilities, most models of literacy acquisition are bed on the study of English children.

The first aim of this longitudinal study is to evaluate the contrastive hypothesis that two different languages, i.e. French and Dutch, may give rise to differential rates and/or patterns of development in phonological awareness and subsequent literacy acquisition. The second aim of this study is to investigate the specific effects of literacy acquisition on the phonological representations of the language.

To test those hypothesis, the metaphonological, reading and writing abilities of about 200 children will be assessed during a three-years follow-up study. Two groups of 50 monolinguals (French, Dutch) and two groups of bilinguals (French children who attend Dutch schools and Dutch children who attend French schools) will be tested.

The comparison between monolinguals and bilinguals is aimed at giving better picture of the differential effects of language input (phonology) and formal instruction (orthography) on the metaphonological and literacy development in children. The comparison between the two bilingual groups will give opportunity to disentangle the relations that can develop between those two different languages (transfer from first to second language versus from second to first language; general versus specific transfer). The longitudinal dimension is aimed at assessing the causality links between the differential metaphonological skills acquired in each language (for monolinguals) or in both languages (for bilinguals) and the reading and writing of particular structures (e.g. complex syllabic and subsyllabic structures).

Publications:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

Belgium

Principal investigator(s): J. Leybaert

J. Alegria

Address: U.L.B.

CP 191

av. F. Roosevelt

B-1050 Brussels

BELGIUM

E-mail-address of the contact-person: leybaert@ulb.ac.be

Title of study:

Longitudinal study of reading and spelling development in French speaking children.

Key words:

word recognition word spelling vocabulary

Beginning date of study (month, year): 1991

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 1996

Number of completed waves: 4

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 4

Time interval between waves (average): 1 yr.

Maximum sample size: 317

Size of core sample: 256

Age range at first data collection: 4;6 - 5;6 yrs.

Data computerized? no

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

TVAP

receptive & expressive vocabulary

Khomsi

morphosyntactical abilities

BELEC

word recognition & spelling, metaphonological skills, non-word repetition, letter knowledge

 

 

Abstract:

Data were collected on French-speaking children during a 5-year period: when children were in kindergarten (N=317), when they were in the first grade, in the second grade and in the fourth grade. Complete data are available for 258 children. The evaluation included tests of non-verbal intelligence, vocabulary, morpho-syntax, letter knowledge, word and pseudo-word reading, word spelling, and reading comprehension. Correlational analyses from kindergarten to second grade indicated an effect of phonological awareness tasks on development of written word processing, above an important effect of school class and socio-economic level.

Publications:

Leybaert, J., Alegria, J., Deltour, J.-J. & Skinkel, R. (1994). Projection des habiletes linguistiques et metalinguistiques mesurees en 3ème maternelle sur le developpement de la lecture et de l´ecriture au cours des l´ère et 2ème annees primaire. In: J. Gregoire & B. Pierart (Eds.), Evaluer les troubles de la lecture. Bruxelles: De Boeck-Wesmael, pp. 147 - 172.

A paper on the word reading and word spelling data of the 2nd and 4th grade is in preparation.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

Croatia

Principal investigator(s):

Mira Cudina-Obradovic

Address: University of Zagreb

Teacher´s Academy

Savska c. 77

10000 Zagreb

CROATIA

E-mail-address of the contact-person: jobradov@mail.tel.hr

Title of study:

Social origins of children´s cognitive functioning.

Key words:

follow-up study determinants of reading achievement phonological sensitivity SES

Beginning date of study (month, year): 04-94

Date of latest data collection (month, year): in progress

Number of completed waves: 2

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 5

Time interval between waves (average): 1 yr.

Maximum sample size: 119

Size of core sample: 119

Age range at first data collection: 6 - 7 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

Academic Attainment Checklist Items (AACI) (Sloper et al., 1990)

Measuring of school preparedness

Phonological skills: Identitiy, phoneme elision, word sequentation, blending phonemes

Measuring phonemic awareness and phonemic sensitivity

Bangore test

Left/right orientation

Coloured Progressive Matrices (Raven, 1976)

Performance intelligence test

Bangore test

Short term memory

The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance Scale (Harter & Pike, 1983)

Perception of mother´s engagement

Questionnaire of parental involvement

3 levels of parental involvement in school work

 

 

Abstract:

A follow-up research was planned and performed among the pre-school children just before entering the 1st grade in the city of Zagreb, Croatia.

Several aims of the research were defined:

(1) to find out pre-school (and out-of-school) determinants of reading achievement, determinants being defined as: pre-school and out-of-school reading practice, child's cognitive functioning and child's pre-school phonological sensitivity

Other (intervening) variables were defined as SES (father's and mother's level of schooling taken separately), economic standing of the family (teacher's rating), child's self-perception (Harter & Pike, 1983).

(2) to find out how SES of the family is influencing the pre-school and school child's cognitive functioning and phonological sensitivity as the distal influences on reading achievement.

(3) To find out how initial (pre-school) literacy influences future school success especially in the light of parental characteristics and parental involvement

(4) To find out relationship between pre-school literacy and numeracy development and the influence of these on future success of children

(5) To find out successful and unsuccessful paths of advancement in the lower elementary school (1st to 4th grade) taking into account distal and proximal influences.

Main conclusions:

Reading accuracy and reading rate were the least predicted criteria, only up to 20% of common variance was found between the predictors and outcomes. For the reading comprehension criterion only a third (30%) of common variance was found. The criterion reading fluency had almost half (50%) of common variance with the used predictors, the biggest contribution coming from parental involvement. The biggest portion of the variance of obtained grade criteria was explained by used predictors (64%), and although the biggest contribution came from parental coaching block, other two blocks, especially cognitive functioning, contributed a considerable portion of variance of the results. The pre-school phonological functions contributed less than expected to overall reading efficiency criteria, the biggest contribution being in reading accuracy, the most important being phoneme segmentation.

It was obvious from the results that both mother's and father's schooling had and influence on child's cognitive outcomes and school progress. It was the high mother's schooling that was of specific importance for child's pre-school literacy (pre-writing), reading comprehension and phonological skills (onset and rime blending). But the influence on other cognitive outcomes was evenly distributed between mother and father. Both mother's and father's schooling were important for child's grade in language, while father's schooling had more importance in child's GPA. The most surprising result of the study was that both father's and mother's schooling had an independent influence on child's visual short-term memory (irrespectively of child's intelligence and mother's engagement).

C

Croatia

Principal investigator(s):

Geza Dudas

Address: Poliklinika SUVAG

Institute for speech Disorder "Suvag"

Strossmayerova 6

31000 Osijek

CROATIA

E-mail-address of the contact-person: gezad@knjiga.pedos.hr

Title of study:

Predicting acquirement of reading skills

Key words:

Acquisition of literacy prediction of reading and spelling

Beginning date of study (month, year): 09-82

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 09-85

Number of completed waves: 2

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 2

Time interval between waves (average): 3 yrs.

Maximum sample size: 42

Size of core sample: 32

Age range at first data collection: 6;3 - 7;2 yrs.

Data computerized? no

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

I. Tolicic

School readiness test

Bender Gestalt

Bender Gestalt Test, Koppitz Developmental Scoring System

D. Vuletic

Speech articulation test

S. Vasic

Speech articulation test

Unsystematic Errors

Unsystematic errors of articulation test

Analysis Synthesis

Test for the analysis and synthesis of words and sounds

Reading success

Reading skills test

 

 

Abstract:

In order to predict reading success six tests were administered to a sample of 32 first grade pupils. The set of predictors consisted of: 1) School Readiness Test (I. Tolicic), 2) Bender Gestalt Test (Koppitz Developmental Scoring System), 3) Articulation Test (D. Vuletic), 4) Articulation Test (S. Vasic), 5) Unsystematic Errors of Articulation Test (constructed by the author), 6) Test for Analysis and Synthesis of Words and Sounds (constructed by the author).

Reading success, which was a criterion variable, was assessed at the beginning of the fourth grade.

The results of the regression analysis showed that School Readiness Test, Bender Gestalt Test, Unsystematic Errors of Articulation Test and Test for the Analysis and Synthesis of Words and Sounds relate to successful learning to read. However, the two tests for diagnosis of systematic dyslalia (Vuletic Articulation Test and Vasic Articulation Test) have no predictive value for reading achievement.

Publications:

Dudas, G. (1986). Predicting Acquirement of reading Skills. Defektologija, 22, 1986,2, 19-27.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

Croatia

Principal investigator(s):

Svjetlana Kolic-Vehovec

Address: University of Rijeka

Faculty of Philosophy, Department of Psychology, Trg. I

Klobucarica 1

51000 Rijeka

CROATIA

E-mail-address of the contact-person: skolic@human.pefri.hr

Title of study:

Phonological awareness and learning to read.

Key words:

phonological awareness reading acquisition

Beginning date of study (month, year): 05-93

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 05-96

Number of completed waves: 4

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 4

Time interval between waves (average): 1 yr.

Maximum sample size: 50

Size of core sample: 44

Age range at first data collection: 6;0 - 6;6 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? yes

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

Phonological awareness test (Kolic-Vehovec, 1992)

Measure of different aspects of phonological awareness: phonemic segmentation, phonemic blending, deletion of first and last phoneme, substitution of first and last phoneme, phoneme displacing

Curriculum based reading measure

(Marston, 1989)

Measure of reading fluency and accuracy

School readiness test (Vukmirovic & Hadziselimovic, 1993)

Measure of graphomotor development and reasoning of pre-school children

 

 

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between development of phonological awareness and acquisition of reading skill in children on the beginning of schooling. The study began with 50 pre-school children and ended with 44 children at the end of third grade. They were first tested in kindergarten four months before beginning the school. Phonological awareness test and reading test were administered. Only fifteen children were identified as readers and they also had developed phonemic segmentation and blending, and partially developed skill of deletion of first and last phoneme. Only some non-readers had rudimentary developed phonemic segmentation and blending, and rest of them had none of phonological awareness. The second measurement was conducted after five months on the beginning of the first grade. Non-readers developed slightly phonological segmentation and blending, but readers approached ceiling almost all aspects of phonological awareness except skill to displace phonemes. At the end of first grade the children were tested again. All children mastered phonemic segmentation and blending. Pre-school readers mastered also phoneme deletion and approached ceiling in phoneme substitution, and pre-school non-readers only partially developed phoneme deletion and substitution. Pre-school readers read more than twofold faster than pre-school non-readers did. Deletion of first phoneme measured before and at the beginning of first grade was best predictor of reading at the end of first grade. The last measurement was conducted at the end of third grade. All children mastered all aspect of phonological awareness except phoneme displacement, and phonological awareness was no long good predictor of reading. Pre-school readers still read faster and more accurate than pre-school non-readers.

Publications:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

Croatia

Principal investigator(s):

Karol Visinko

Hajdi Matijevic

Dubravka Tezak

Address: University of Rijeka

Faculty of Philosophy - Teacher´s Studies

Trg. Ivana Klobucarica 1

51000 Rijeka

CROATIA

E-mail-address of the contact-person: karol.visinko@ri.tel.hr

Title of study:

Reception of the Croatian children´s story.

Key words:

Reading comprehension

Beginning date of study (month, year): 10-97

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 03-99

Number of completed waves: 2

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 2

Time interval between waves (average): 1 yr.

Maximum sample size: 1034

Size of core sample: 315

Age range at first data collection: 8 - 12 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other: applied research - major field: Humanities studies - field: philology - branch: literally science – subbranch: Croatian children´s story and primary school teaching of Croatian language and literature (field of didactics/methodics)

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

Questionnaires for primary school scholars

Relationship analysis toward stories: interests; story in school

Q. for primary school scholars' parents

Relationship analysis toward stories: Considerings about their children attitude toward story in early childhood and today

Q. for primary school teachers

Relationship analysis toward stories: story status in educational processes

Q. for students, future teachers

Relationship analysis toward stories: story status in educational processes

Q. for educators

Relationship analysis toward stories: the story in educational habits in kid-gardens

Q. for parents whose children is going to kid-gardens/nursery schools

Relationship analysis toward stories: story status in families

Readings of selected stories

Reception of story - self reading at home

Q. for scholars (objective type tasks)

Impression and understanding analysis of stories

Scholars' written compositions/essays

Research about scholars' written compositions inspired by read stories (stilistic analysis)

 

There are 6 types of questionnaires. Every one of them is examining the interviewers' attitude to children story. Some of the questions are common for all interviewers. They refer to the subjective attitude toward children story (remembering stories of the own childhood, status and importance of stories in the own childhood)

 

Abstract:

The project is initiated because of the need for a systematic research of Croatian children's stories especially those of the receptive and interpretative nature. The components of the three-years project are:

Poetical World in a children's story, especially the subject-matter and expression in "Price iz davnine" Ivane Brlic-Mazuranic

Documentary elements and poetical elements in animalistic stories

Journalistic and scientifically popular style in children's story.

The research is based on observation of subject-matter and expression of chosen types of stories and on its use in literal-lingual education of children. Work on this project contributes to research of national values in field of Croatian language and literature. Literal substance is researched and valued by literal science methods and in a direct use in primary school and out of school practice, an interpretative analytic and problematical-creative approach is used.

In the first year of the research, we have managed to collect and study all the relevant literature. In the three primary schools of Primorsko-goranska county we have conducted an initial exam concerning the attitude toward children story. It included teachers, scholars and their parents. Because of the shown interest, we have decided to include in this research also educators, pre-school age children's parents and teacher studies' students.

It is now the second year of research in which we analyse the reception of chosen Croatian children stories, scholars' impressions and understandings. In the same year, we will also analyse scholars' written compositions.

Publications:

Suvremena hrvatska djecja prica (Contemporary Croatian children story) Rijec, br. 4/1, Hrvatsko filološko društvo - Podruznica u Rijeci, Rijeka, 1998.

Interes za djecju pricu (Interest for children story), u zborniku "Kako razvijati kulturu citanja", Knjiznice Grada Zagreba - Hrvatski centar za djecju knjigu - Hrvatska sekcija IBBY-a, Zagreb, 1999.

Umjetnicki tekst (prica) i drugi mediji (The artistic text (story) and other media), u zborniku "Likovna komunikacija u teoriji i praksi predškolskog odgoja", Odjel za odgoj i školstvo Grada Opatije, Opatija, 1999.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

Czech Republic

Principal investigator(s):

Zdenek Matejcek

Jaroslav Sturma

Marie Vagnerova

Olga Zelinkova

Zdenek Zlab

Address: Pedagogical consulting center

Svatoslavova 17

CZ- Praha 4 - Nusle, 140 00

CZECH REPUBLIC

E-mail-address of the contact-person: Fax. 004202 6913511

Title of study:

Evaluation of the efficiency of reading in the Czech Republic

Key words:

diagnosis of dyslexia

Beginning date of study (month, year): 10-68

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 03-95

Number of completed waves: 4

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 4

Time interval between waves (average): 1968-1984-1985-1994

Maximum sample size: 5265

Size of core sample: 2497

Age range at first data collection: 7 – 14 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? yes

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other: standardization of tests of reading

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

easy story test of reading

number of correctly read words in one minute (average, min., max., SD)

difficult story

number of mistakes, analysis of mistakes

nonsensible text

technique of reading

 

 

Abstract:

In the Czech Republic, evaluation of reading efficiency started in the year 1936. Standardisation and following restandardisations of norm-referenced reading tests, which are used to identify the group of individuals with dyslexia, was the aim of the longitudinal study from the years 1968 - 1995. The tests of reading are part of the battery of tests for the diagnosis of dyslexia.

5 265 children (for all waves), 7 to 14 years of age were examined in different parts of the Czech Republic. In the study, every child read the articles of increasing difficulty two time in the school year at least. The level of reading was evaluated concerning the speed, accuracy, technique of reading and analysis of the mistakes.

Conclusion are as follow : The children in the 80´ and 90´ read better then the children in the evaluation in the school year 1968/69. The level of reading improves mostly in the first three years. There are great differences between the children in every grade. In every grade are some students they need special help. Positive correlation between the level of reading and evaluation of teachers was evident. Analysis of mistakes shows that the most common mistakes is the addition or the omission of letters or syllables.

Publications:

Matejcek Z., Zlab Z. : Zkouška cteni, Psychodiagnosticke pomucky, Bratislava 1971

Matejcek Z., Šturma J., Vagnerova M., Zlab Z. : Zkouška cteni,

Psychodiagnosticke a didakticke testy, n.p., Bratislava 1987

Zelinkova O. : Hodnoceni úrovne cteni v Ceske republice, Sbornik Specificke

poruchy uceni 1997/98, Portal , s.18 - 26

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

Czech Republic

Principal investigator(s):

Vladimir Smekal

Jan Beran

Miroslava Novotna

Helena Klimusova

Address: Masaryk University of Brno

Pedagogical Faculty

Poriòr 31

60300 Brno

CZECH REPUBLIC

E-mail-address of the contact-person: novotna.m@jumbo.ped.muni.cz

Title of study:

Comparison of effectiveness of Obecna Schools (reformed) and Zakladni Schools (unreformed schools).

Key words:

school achievement didactic skills

Beginning date of study (month, year): 06-94

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 12-98

Number of completed waves: 5

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 5

Time interval between waves (average): 1 yr.

Maximum sample size: 1800

Size of core sample: 1800

Age range at first data collection: 7 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? yes

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other: monitoring educational reforms in the postcommunist years

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

Czech reading and language (Novotna 1996, 1997, 1998)

measuring reading and language skills

 

 

Abstract:

The fundamental aim of this longitudinal project was to compare the effectiveness of Obecna Schools, which followed a statutorily reformed curriculum and teaching method, with the unreformed Zakladni (primary) Schools. This was effected by annual comparisons of child intelligence, personality and didactic skills. Teacher personality was an independent variable. Sample consisted of Obecna and Zakladni Schools of rural and urban regions throughout the Czech Republic. Children were group-tested each year. In addition to my reading tests they completed semiprojective personality tests, mathematic tests, and some years IQ tests. Teachers completed semiprojective personality tests, and some years, answered questions about the management of their schools. Results were mainly inconclusive, but there was some evidence that children in reformed schools use language more creatively.

Publications:

Beran, J., Smekal, V. & Klimusova, H. (1994). Obecna skola po prvnim roce overovani. Report to Ministry of Schools, Czech Republic. Brno: CDVU 1994.

Beran, J., Smekal, V. & Klimusova, H. (1995). Obecna skola po druhem roce overovani. Report to Ministry of Schools, Czech Republic. Brno: CDVU 1995.

Beran, J., Smekal, V., Machalova, M., Klimusova, H., Novotna, M. & Vanurova, M. (1996). Obecna skola po tretim roce overovani. Report to Ministry of Schools, Czech Republic. Brno: CDVU 1996.

Beran, J., Smekal, V., Machalova, M., Klimusova, H., Novotna, M. & Vanurova, M. (1997). Obecna skola po ctvrtem roce overovani. Report to Ministry of Schools, Czech Republic. Brno: CDVU 1997.

Beran, J., Smekal, V., Klimusova, H., Novotna, M. & Vanurova, M. (1998). Obecna skola po patem roce overovani. Report to Ministry of Schools, Czech Republic. Brno: CDVU 1998.

Novotna, M. & Gray, H. (1997). Research on reading skills. Report to the international Conference, Diagnostic 1997, Czech Republic, University of Ostrava, Pedagogical Faculty. September 1997.

Novotna, M., Smekal, V., Beran, J., Klimusova, H. & Gray, H. (1998). Educational reforms in the Czech Republic. Report to the international Conference of the Study Group Education in Russia the independence States East Europ. University of London School of Slavonic Studies. November 1998.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

Denmark

Principal investigator(s):

Ina Borstroem

Dorthe Klint Petersen

Carsten Elbro

Address: University of Copenhagen

Department of General and Applied Linguistics

Njalsgade 80

DK- 2300 Kobenhavn S

DENMARK

E-mail-address of the contact-person: dkp@cphling.dk

Title of study:

Initial reading materials and the variation in children´s reading abilities

Key words:

reading instruction reading acquisition

Beginning date of study (month, year): 05-95

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 06-98

Number of completed waves: 7

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 7

Time interval between waves (average): 6 mths.

Maximum sample size: 3532

Size of core sample: 1434

Age range at first data collection: 5;5 - 7;5 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? yes

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

L 20

listening comprehension

SL 40

reading comprehension

Forlyd + Udlyd

phonological awareness

Letter knowledge

letter knowledge

Ordlas

word reading

Lis skriver ord

non-word reading

Chips

problem solving, non-verbal IQ

Skriv ord

spelling

OS 400

word decoding

Selvredering

self-assessment

 

 

Abstract:

The aim of the project was to contribute to an understanding of the extraordinary large variation in reading abilities among Danish third graders (cf. The IEA study, 1992).

Approximately 200 school classes are being followed with biannual group measures of language, IQ, reading and spelling. The independent variables include aspects of reading materials, teaching methods, and teacher qualifications. Data are collected in collaboration with local reading consultants and psychologists.

Publications:

Borstrøm, I., Petersen, D.K. & Elbro, C. (1997). Midtvejsrapport fra projekt om valg af

læsebogssystem og den første læseudvikling. Projekt Læsning: Københavns Universitet.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I

Denmark

Principal investigator(s):

Carsten Elbro

Ina Borstroem

Dorthe K. Petersen

Address: University of Copenhagen

Department of General and Applied Linguistics

Njalsgade 80

DK- 2300 Kopenhavn S

DENMARK

E-mail-address of the contact-person: ce@cphling.dk

Title of study:

The Copenhagen dyslexia study.

Key words:

dyslexia phonological representations phonological recoding skills

Beginning date of study (month, year): 07-93

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 09-97

Number of completed waves: 4

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 4

Time interval between waves (average): 1 yr.

Maximum sample size: 160

Size of core sample: 150

Age range at first data collection: 5;5 - 6;5

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? yes

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: yes

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups: 1

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups: 2

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month): 17 weeks

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month): 2,5 hrs./week

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

Letter knowledge

 

Phoneme deletion

 

Phoneme identification

 

Morpheme awareness

 

Syllable awareness

 

Distinctiveness of pronunciation

 

STM (digit span)

 

Articulatory fluency

 

Receptive vocabulary

 

Non-verbal IQ

 

reading and spelling tests

 

 

 

Abstract:

This paper presents results from a longitudinal study of children of dyslexic and of normally reading parents. The children were followed from the beginning of kindergarten (at the age of six, one year before reading instruction in Denmark) until the beginning of the second grade. Children of dyslexic parents were found to have an increased risk of dyslexia (a 4.3 odds ratio) when dyslexia was defined as poor phonological recoding (poor reading of non-words, and pseudo-homophones of real words). All language measures in kindergarten were statistically significant predictors of dyslexia. Logistic regression analyses with backwards stepwise selection indicated that three measures contributed independently to the prediction of dyslexia: letter naming, phoneme identification, and distinctness of phonological representations. The measure of distinctness of phonological representations also contributed significantly to the prediction of poor phoneme awareness in grade two - even when differences in early syllable and phoneme awareness, articulation, and productive and receptive vocabulary were accounted for. The results suggest that the quality of phonological representations in the mental lexicon is a determinant of the development of both segmental (e.g. phoneme) awareness and of the acquisition of phonological recoding skills in reading.

Publications:

Elbro, C. (1998). Reading-listening discrepancy definitions of dyslexia. In P. Reitsma & L. Verhoeven (Eds.), Problems and interventions in literacy development. Dordrecht: Kluwer.

Elbro, C., Nielsen, I. & Petersen, D.K. (1994). Dyslexia in adults: Evidence for deficits in non-word reading and in the phonological representation of lexical items. Annals of Dyslexia, 44, 205-226.

Elbro, C. (1996). Early linguistic abilities and reading development: A review and a hypothesis. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 8, 453-485.

Elbro, C., Borstroem, I. & Petersen, D.K. (1998). Predicting dyslexia from kindergarten. The importance of distinctness of phonological representations of lexical items. Reading Research Quarterly, 33 (1), 36-60.

Elbro, C. (1998). When reading is "readn" or somthn. Distinctness of phonological representations of lexical items in normal and disabled readers. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 39, 149-153.

Borstroem, I. & Elbro, C. (1997). Prevention of dyslexia in kindergarten: Effects of phoneme awareness training with children of dyslexic parents. In C. Hulme & M. Snowling (Eds.), Dyslexia: Biology, Cognition and Intervention (pp. 235-253). London: Whurr.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I

Finland

Principal investigator(s):

Taru Haeyrinen

Marit Korkman

Silve Serenius-Sirje

Katri Wahlman-Neuronen

Liisa Klenberg

Kaisa Peltomaa

Address:

89 Ave. Albert Jonnart

B-1200 Brussels

BELGIUM

E-mail-address of the contact-person: marit.korkman@skynet.be

Title of study:

Neuropsychological intervention of dyslexia

Key words:

Prevention of dyslexia neuropsychological intervention treatment of dyslexia

Beginning date of study (month, year): 1991

Date of latest data collection (month, year): ongoing

Number of completed waves: 2

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 2

Time interval between waves (average): 2 yrs.

Maximum sample size: 46+80

Size of core sample: 46+80

Age range at first data collection: 7 - 13 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? yes

Type of study:

Correlation study: no

Intervention study: yes

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups: 2

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups: 2

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month): 1 - 3 yrs.

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month): once/week

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

NEPSY (1997-98), including:

neuropsychological assessments:

phonological processing

phonological analysis

speeded naming

speeded alternating naming

comprehension of instructions

verbal comprehension

repetition of nonsense words

phonological perception & articulation

verbal fluency

word retrieval

memory for names

supra-span semantic learning

list learning

supra-span verbal memory

sentence repetition

verbal memory span

lukilasse

assessing reading, spelling & math level

 

 

Abstract:

The aim of this ongoing study is to examine the effects of neuropsychological intervention of children with dyslexia and verbal impairment underlying dyslexia. The project consists of two parts, one retrospective and one prospective. In the retrospective study 23 children with persistent dyslexia, who had received individual neuropsychological intervention, were assessed. Age at the start of the treatment varied from 7 to 12 years. A control group was formed of 23 dyslexic children for whom neuropsychological intervention had not been available. The treatment aimed at improving linguistic skills, such as phonological analysis of words, decoding written text, reading and spelling of irregular words, and verbal expression, and at improving metalinguistic skills, working habits, self-esteem, and own activity. The treatment was provided once a week for 1-3 years. Pre- and post-treatment comparisons demonstrated that the treatment group improved significantly more on the WISC-R, FSIQ, VIQ and PIQ than the control group. The parents of the children of the treatment group reported marked improvement in the children’s ability to work independently, and school grades improved significantly.

In a prospective study children who are provided neuropsychological intervention for severe dyslexia undergo assessments of neurolinguistic capacities underlying, psychometric intelligence, and of reading and spelling, before and after treatment. Matched dyslexic children who do not obtain neuropsychological intervention form a control group. So far 49 children have received treatment whereas 13 are included in the control group. The aim is to obtain 60 children in the treatment group and 20 children in the control group. Intervention methods are the same as above.

Publications:

Korkman, M. & Haeyrinen, T. (1999). Neuropsychological intervention of dyslexia and verbal learning disorders. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 5, 157.

Haeyrinen, T. & Korkman, M. (1997). Oppimishaerioeisten lasten neuropsykologinen kuntoutus (Intervention of children with specific learning disorders. In Finnish). In: M. Korkman & K. Peltomaa (Eds.). Lasten neuropsykologinen kuntoutus (Neuropsychological intervention of children. In Finnish). Helsinki: PJK Test House.

Korkman, M. & Peltomaa (Eds.). Lasten neuropsykologinen kuntoutus (Neuropsychological intervention of children. In Finnish). Helsinki: PJK Test House.

Korkman, M., Kirk, U., Kemp, S.L. (1998). NEPSY. A developmental neuropsychological assessment. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.

Haeyrinen, T., Serenius-Sirve, S., Korkman, M. (1999). Lukilasse. Lukemisen, kirjoittamisen ja laskemisen seulontatestistoe peruskoulun ala-asteen luokille 1-6. (Screening test of reading, spelling, and arithmetics for basic school grades 1-6). Helsinki: Psykologien kustannus

Korkman, M., Kirk, U., & Kemp, S.L. (in press). Developmental assessment of neuropsychological function with the aid of the NEPSY. In: A. Kaufman & N. Kaufman (Eds.). Specific Learning Disabilities: Psychological assessment and evaluation. Cambridge University Press.

Korkman, M. (in press). Applying Luria's diagnostic principles in the neuropsychological assessment of children. Neuropsychology Review.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

Finland

Principal investigator(s):

Leena Holopainen

Timo Ahonen

Address: University of Jyvaeskylae

Niilo Maeki Institute

PL/Box 35

FIN-40351 Jyvaeskylae

FINLAND

E-mail-address of the contact-person: lholopai@nmi.jyu.fi

Title of study:

The development of reading and reading-related skills and the use of analogy-models from pre-school to the end of the second school year.

Key words:

phonological awareness reading acquisition reading-related skills analogy models

Beginning date of study (month, year): 03-97

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 05-99

Number of completed waves: 4 for all (10 for half of the subjects)

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 5 for all (11 for half of the subjects)

Time interval between waves (average): 6 mths.

Maximum sample size: 90

Size of core sample: one part (the analogy models) had only 48 subjects

Age range at first data collection: 6;4 - 7;4 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

Raven

Non-verbal IQ

PPVT

receptive vocabulary

RAN & RAS

naming speed

Kaufman-ABC: Matrix Analogies

analogic reasoning

ITPA: Auditive Reasoning

reasoning and vocabulary

WISC: Short-term memory

memory

NEPSY (Neuro-Psychological Assessment)

pseudoword repetition, oral-dynamic praxis

Poskiparta (1994): Diagnostic Tests 1

phonological awareness, word-list reading, letter knowledge

Lindeman (1998): Reading Test for primary schools

reading comprehension (sentences and text)

Niilo Maeki Institute - Test Battery (1992)

word-list reading, pseudoword list reading

 

 

Abstract:

(The abstract concerns the first part of the study: Two alternative models of reading acquisition at pre-school age). The relationship between reading accuracy and reading related skills were examined of 91 Finnish speaking pre-schoolers (ranging in age from 6;4 to 7;4 years) by two structural equation models. The special interest of the models was the connection between children´s reading and phonological awareness skills. The main results of our study show, that in a very transparent language like Finnish, the model emphasizing certain sensitivity to phonological structure of the word being prerequisite for learning to read fitted to this data very well. The other model, which also was theoretically and statistically very accessible, suggested that learning to read would be the cause of phonemic awareness. The results of this current study suggest that reading acquisition in Finnish at pre-school age has several similarities with other languages, but also differences, that could be language-specific and need further investigations.

Publications:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

Finland

Principal investigator(s):

Marja-Liisa Julkunen

Address: Joensuu universitet

Pedagogiska fakulteten

P.O. Box 111

FIN-80101 Joensuu

FINLAND

E-mail-address of the contact-person: marja-liisa.julkunen.@joensuu.fi

Title of study:

Seven studies on reading.

Key words:

learning to read reading comprehension academic achievements

Beginning date of study (month, year): 08-91

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 08-94

Number of completed waves: 9

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 9

Time interval between waves (average): grade 1, 2, 6, 9, 12 and 2 yrs. after completion of school

Maximum sample size: 790

Size of core sample: 275

Age range at first data collection: 7

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? yes

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other: follow-up, developmental

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

beginning literacy test

to measure early development of literacy

literacy test

to measure the process of learning to read

literacy test

to measure literacy at the end of grade 1

literacy test

to measure the development of literacy in the middle of grade 2

literacy test

to measure literacy at the end of grade 2

literacy test

to measure reading comprehension at grade 6

literacy test

to measure reading comprehension at grade 9

matriculation examination in mother tongue, humanities and science

to correlate literacy with essay writing and humanities and science study

literacy as a hobby

to measure the reading interests of young adults

 

 

Abstract:

The purpose of the first study was to investigate learning to read, to compare the learning processes in different teaching methods, and to acquire information on children who had learnt to read before school.

The results showed that the pupils learn to read a short text mechanically correctly in the course of the first grade, they are able to answer reading comprehension questions requiring literal understanding. They also learn to make simple inferences from the texts and to relate the texts to their own experiences. There are no differences between the methods in teaching reading comprehension. The early readers have had more contacts with books than those pupils who had learnt to read at school.

The purpose of the second study was to investigate second graders’ mechanical reading ability and reading comprehension skills, rereading interests, and to compare the reading comprehension skills in grade 2 to academic achievements in the theoretical subjects in grade 3. Already in the autumn term almost all second graders are able to read and literally understand simple texts that are related to their sphere of life. Part of the pupils have advanced in reading comprehension to a level where they have realized that reading is a way of finding out things for themselves if they read carefully. The early readers can make inferences from texts without difficulties. Second graders’ reading interest is only emerging. At grade 3 the early readers do significantly much better in the theoretical subjects than those who have learnt to read at school.

The purpose of the third study was to investigate sixth-graders’ skills in reading factual texts and fiction, their voluntary reading and factors associated with reading comprehension skills.

The results indicated that sixth-graders are able to read textbook texts and that they comprehend the significance of textual context. Fiction proved to be more difficult. The significance of reading comprehension skills for academic achievement was clearly demonstrated. Reading seemed to be a popular hobby.

The purpose of the fourth study was to investigate the Finnish comprehensive school leavers’ reading skills, their voluntary reading and to outline the development of reading comprehension through the school years.

The Finnish comprehensive school leavers can cope with factual texts quite well. The results in the fictive text are not so positive; when the literal understanding is required, the students do well. Inferential or creative reading is difficult for part of the students. Only some 10 per cent of the students have reading as a serious hobby. In comparing the development of reading comprehension of the three groups (early readers, beginning readers, non-readers) in fiction texts through grades 1, 2, 6, and 9, LISREL analysis demonstrated the level of reading skills and time have a significant interaction effect. The repeated measures SIMPLEX analysis that was conducted to elaborate the results demonstrated that each group follow separate paths throughout the comprehensive school. Reading comprehension develops so that the paths do not coincide.

The sixth study is the final part of the research project: it focuses on the 275 upper secondary school leavers. The data consists of students’ upper secondary school certificates, and matriculation examination results. In addition, the students’ matriculation essays and their answers in the humanities/science component of the examination were analysed in terms of thinking levels, which were assumed to reflect the students’ reading comprehension skills.

The earlier reading comprehension results correlate slightly with the school leaving marks. Those who could read before school went to upper secondary school more frequently than those who learn to read at school. They also obtained better upper secondary leaving certificates than the non-readers. The upper secondary school leavers generally use serial thinking.

The purpose of seventh study was to investigate Finnish young people's reading and literature as a hobby, its beginning and directions. The interviews consist of 20 comprehensive schools leavers and 20 upper secondary school leavers.

The results demonstrated that reading and literature were very important in childhood and in the lower stage of the comprehensive school but later on other hobbies replaced them or interest in voluntary reading simply decreased. The results suggests that home and parents’ reading habits have a more important role than school in the development of voluntary reading. The significance of literacy is in that early readers are slightly more likely to become readers of literature that those who learnt to read at school.

Publications:

Julkunen, Marja-Liisa (1984) Learning to Read and Teaching of Reading. University of Joensuu. Publications in Education, 1 (in Finnish)

Julkunen, Marja-Liisa (1986) Second graders’ reading skills in relation to third graders’ academic achievement. University of Joensuu. Research Reports of the Faculty of Education, 13 (in Finnish)

Julkunen, Marja-Liisa (1987) Sixth graders’ reading comprehension skills. University of Joensuu. Research Reports of the Faculty of Education, 18 (in Finnish)

Julkunen, Marja-Liisa (1994) Development of Reading Skills in the Finnish Comprehensive School. University of Joensuu. Research Reports of the Faculty of Education, 57 (in English)

Julkunen, Marja-Liisa (1995) Literacy and Educational Career. University of Joensuu. Research Reports of the Faculty of Education, 59 (in Finnish)

Julkunen, Marja-Liisa (1997) On the way to literature. University of Joensuu. Research Reports of the Faculty of Education, 65 (in Finnish)

 

 

 

 

 

 

I

Finland

Principal investigator(s):

Ann-Christina Kjeldsen

Pekka Niemi

Ake Olofsson

Address: Kyrkby Hoegstadieskola

FIN-22 150 Jomola, Aland

FINLAND

E-mail-address of the contact-person: ackjeldsen@alcom.aland.fi

Title of study:

Effects of training phonological awareness - evaluation of a metalinguistic training program for pre-school children.

Key words:

phonological awareness metalinguistic training

Beginning date of study (month, year): 09-97

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 04-99

Number of completed waves: 4

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 7

Time interval between waves (average): 6 mths. between first 4 waves; 1 yr. between last 3 waves

Maximum sample size: 209

Size of core sample: 196

Age range at first data collection: approx. 6 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? yes

Type of study:

Correlation study: no

Intervention study: yes

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups: 9

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups: 12

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month): 6 mths. (kindergarten) / 8 weeks in grade 1

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month): every day in kindergarten (84), 3 days/week in grade 1 (24)

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

pre-school measures given as pretest in September 97 and as posttest in May 98

 

Prereading ability

the child´s reading ability level: simple short words or longer words and sentences

Letter knowledge

recognition of upper- and lowercase letters

Language comprehension: KTI - Krogh, 1977, Bjoerk & Lindman

controlled observation of children´s ability to follow directions in drawing figures

Sproglig Test 1, Ege

vocabulary - the level of precision with which the child described pictures

Sproglig opmaerksomket: Screening test - Frost, 1987

metaphonological tests: rhyme, word segmentation, syllable synthesis, syllable segmentation, initial phoneme, phoneme segmentation, phoneme synthesis

school tests:

 

Metaphonological transfer tests: IL-Basis, Frost et Nielsen, 1998

Group tests: Rhyme

Lyssna till orden, Haeggstroem et Lundberg, 1997

initial sound analysis

Lyssna till orden, Haeggstroem et Lundberg, 1997

word length analysis

Bedoemning av spraklig medvetenhet, Magnusson et Naucler, 1993

syllable segmentation

Lyssna till orden, Haeggstroem et Lundberg, 1997

phoneme segmentation

Raven´s Progressive Matrices sets B+C, 1960

non-verbal intellectual ability

Figurkedjor, Ake Olofsson

perceptual-motoric speed

OS 400, Soeegard, Bording & Torneus, 1974 reading test

Reading

Vartestet 1, Andersson spelling test

Spelling

Makeko, Ikaheimo et al., 1985 mathematics test

 

Mathematic skills

 

Abstract:

Early phonological awareness seems to be necessary for the acquisition of a successful reading and spelling ability. Lundberg and his colleagues demonstrated with their study on Bornholm that systematic phonological training in kindergarten stimulates and effects children's phonological awareness and this fact influences the reading and spelling ability. This effect seems to be more obvious regarding children at risk.

The aim of this study is an attempt to repeat the same interventional program that was carried out on Bornholm, Denmark and to evaluate the effects of the intervention. The training program consists of metalinguistic games and exercises and is given to pre-school children during their last year at kindergarten for about 7 months 15-20 minutes daily. The program continues during 8 weeks in the beginning of Grade 1 at school.

Will the metalinguistic games serve a purpose also now 15 years later on the Aland islands, a Swedish speaking part of Finland? Is there a need of training phonological awareness following a structural program, when phonological awareness is a quite well known concept among kindergarten teachers and primary school teachers? Is there something in these linguistic everyday games for the pre-school children to benefit from , when some of them already know a lot of letters and are beginning to read at this age?

The experimental group consists of 108 children, 50 girls and 58 boys, from 9 separate kindergartens. The control group consists of 101 children, 50 girls and 51 boys, from 12 separate kindergartens. All kindergartens belonging to the study are situated on the Aland islands with no long distances from each other.

The longitudinal study will follow the pre-school children up to Grade 4 at school.

Publications:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I

Finland

Principal investigator(s):

Marit Korkman

Kaisa Peltomaa

Address:

89 Ave. Albert Jonnart

B-1200 Brussels

BELGIUM

E-mail-address of the contact-person: marit.korkman@skynet.be

Title of study:

Preventive treatment of dyslexia by a pre-school training program for children with language impairments.

Key words:

prevention of dyslexia treatment of dyslexia follow-up study prediction of reading and spelling

Beginning date of study (month, year): 09-89

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 05-92

Number of completed waves: 2

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 2

Time interval between waves (average): 3 yrs.

Maximum sample size: 92

Size of core sample: 46

Age range at first data collection: 5;0 - 5;11 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? yes

Type of study:

Correlation study: no

Intervention study: yes

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups: 1

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups: 1

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month): 9 mths.

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month): 1 hr./week

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

NEPSY (1988): inhibition and control

attention and control

NEPSY: sustained concentration

sustained attention

NEPSY, auditory analysis of speech

phonological awareness & analysis

The Token Test

verbal comprehension

NEPSY: relative concepts

comprehension of concepts

NEPSY: naming tokens

speeded alternating naming

VMI (Beery): Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration

copying figures

NEPSY: name learning

supra-span semantic learning

NEPSY: delayed recall of names

delayed verbal retrieval

NEPSY: word span

short-term verbal memory

mechanical reading

mechanical reading & decoding

reading comprehension 1

reading comprehension

reading comprehension 2

reading comprehension

spelling

spelling

WISC-R or WPPSI

intelligence

 

 

Abstract:

Children with language impairments are at great risk for dyslexia. The aim of this study was to create and evaluate methods of preventive treatment of dyslexia for children with language impairment. The study was performed as a controlled experiment in which 26 male children with language impairments were assigned to a pre-school treatment. The treatment consisted of exercises of 1) phonemic awareness (word segmentation, rhyming and alliteration, detecting phonemic errors in familiar rhymes or songs, syllable and sound blending, etc.); 2) grapheme-phoneme conversion (teaching the sounds of the letters in the children's own names, replacing the beginning letter with another, putting together and reading two -letter nonsense syllables of letters in the names, etc.); and 3) rapid name retrieval (naming size, colour, and shape rapidly, as in 'little red ball', 'big blue car', etc.). The treatment took place in small-group sessions once a week the year before the children started school. At the end of the first school year, the children's performance on four tests of reading and spelling were compared to those of a control group consisting of 20 male children with language impairments who had received traditional treatment, mostly speech therapy. The experimental group significantly outperformed the control group on three of the four reading and spelling tests. In order to analyze the effects of the treatment more closely, 14 neuropsychological tests were administered at pre- and post-treatment assessments. The experimental group improved significantly on four tests of language and attention whereas the control group did not improve significantly on any test. In all, the treatment had clear effects on the acquisition of reading and spelling, and on basic neurocognitive capacities, and significantly reduced the risk of dyslexia in children with language disorders.

 

Publications:

Korkman, M. (1995). A test profile approach in the analysis of cognitive disorders in children - experiences of the NEPSY. In: M.G. Tramontana & S.R. Hooper (Eds.). Advances in child neuropsychology. Vol. 3. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Korkman, M. (1999). Specific language impairment. Subtypes and assessment. In F. Fabbro (Ed.): Concise enclyclopedia of language pathology and linguistics. Elsevier.

Korkman, M., Kirk, U., Kemp, S.L. (1998). NEPSY. A developmental neuropsychological assessment. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.

Korkman, M. & Peltomaa, K.A. (1993). Preventive treatment of dys-lexia by a pre-school training program for children with lan-guage impairments. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 22, 277-287.

Peltomaa, A. K. & Korkman, M. (1995). Kieku. Lukemisen ja kirjoittamisen valmiuksien kielellinen kuntoutus esikouluiaessae (A pre-school program for enhancing the prerequisits for acquisition of reading and spelling. In Finnish) Helsinki: PJK Test House

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

Finland

Principal investigator(s): Marit Korkman

Paula Haekkinen-Riku

Address:

89 Ave. Albert Jonnart

B-1200 Brussels

BELGIUM

E-mail-address of the contact-person: marit.korkman@skynet.be

Title of study:

Classification of developmental language disorders (DLD), prediction of dyslexic spelling problems, and follow-up.

Key words:

DLD (Developmental Language Disorder) SLI (Specific Language Impairment) prediction of reading and spelling follow-up study

Beginning date of study (month, year): 09-84

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 05-88

Number of completed waves: 2

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 2

Time interval between waves (average): 3 yrs.

Maximum sample size: 80

Size of core sample: 40

Age range at first data collection: 6;0 - 7;9 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other: prediction study

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

NEPSY (1988), subtest: auditory analysis of speech

phonological awareness

The Token Test

verbal comprehension

NEPSY, subtest: comprehension of instructions

verbal comprehension

NEPSY: relative concepts

comprehension of concepts

NEPSY: oral kinesthetic praxis

oromotor praxis

NEPSY: oral dynamic praxis

oromotor praxis

NEPSY: repeating words and non-words

phonological perception & articulation

NEPSY: naming colors

color naming

NEPSY: naming body parts

body part naming

naming tokens

speeded alternating naming

NEPSY: verbal fluency

word retrieval

NEPSY: digit span

short-term verbal memory

NEPSY: word span

short-term verbal memory

NEPSY: name learning

supra-span semantic learning

ITPA: auditory closure

phonological perception

ITPA: sound blending

phonological awareness

WISC-R

intelligence

WPPSI

intelligence

 

 

Abstract:

The aims of the study were to see 1) whether subtypes of DLD could be identified in kindergarten students with DLD, with the aid of neurocognitive measures; 2) whether some of the subtypes were particularly predictive of dyslexic learning problems. Eighty children with DLD were examined with 18 language tests, mainly derived from a neuropsychological assessment called NEPSY. The children were 6-0 to 7-9 years old and attended kindergarten. The test profiles of the first 40 children, Group 1, were utilized for the elaboration of a classification of DLD. The test profiles were grouped into five subgroups with the aid of a Q-type factor analysis. The classification was modified to suit clinical application, by collapsing two pairs of subgroups. The resulting categories were called: The Global Subtype, the Specific Dyspraxia Subtype, and the Specific Comprehension Subtype. It was predicted that spelling problems, indicative of dyslexia, would occur in the Global and the Specific Comprehension Subtypes, but not in the subgroup Specific Dyspraxia Subtype. A follow-up was performed three years later. The hit rate was found to be 80.5.%. The coverage of the classification was tried out on the 40 children examined later, Group 2, and was found to be 85%. Five outliers (12.5%) seemed to form an additional category, called the Specific Dysnomia Subtype. Follow-up data were not obtained for the children from Group 2.

Publications:

Korkman, M. (1988). NEPSU - Lasten neuropsykologinen tutkimus. Uudistettu versio ( A neuropsychological assessment for children. In Finnish). Helsinki: Psykologien Kustannus.

Korkman, M. (1995). A test profile approach in the analysis of cognitive disorders in children - experiences of the NEPSY. Teo-ksessa: M.G. Tramontana & S.R. Hooper (Eds.). Advances in child neuropsychology. Vol. 3. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Korkman, M. (1999). Specific language impairment. Subtypes and assessment. In F. Fabbro (Ed.): Concise enclyclopedia of language pathology and linguistics. Elsevier.

Korkman, M. (in press). Applying Luria's diagnostic principles in the neuropsychological assessment of children. Neuropsychology Review.

Korkman, M. & Haekkinen-Rihu, P. A new classification of develop-mental language disorders (DLD) (1994). Brain and Language, 47, 96-116.

Korkman, M., Kirk, U., Kemp, S.L. (1998). NEPSY. A developmental neuropsychological assessment. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.

Korkman, M., Kirk, U., & Kemp, S.L. (in press). Developmental assessment of neuropsychological function with the aid of the NEPSY. In: A. Kaufman & N. Kaufman (Eds.). Specific Learning Disabilities: Psychological assessment and evaluation. Cambridge University Press.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

Finland

Principal investigator(s): Marit Korkman

Kati Airaksinen

Henna Pekkanen

Liisa Klenberg

Address:

89 Ave. Albert Jonnart

B-1200 Brussels

BELGIUM

E-mail-address of the contact-person: marit.korkman@skynet.be

Title of study:

Prediction of achievement in reading, spelling, and arithmetics from neurocognitive performance at kindergarten and pre-school age.

Key words:

prediction of reading and spelling development of reading and spelling skills

Beginning date of study (month, year): 09-94

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 05-98

Number of completed waves: 2

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 2

Time interval between waves (average): 3 yrs.

Maximum sample size: 96

Size of core sample: 96

Age range at first data collection: 4;0 - 6;11 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? yes

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other: prediction study

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

NEPSY (1997-98)

comprehensive assessment of neurocognitive functions

Lukilasse

assessment of reading, spelling and arithmetics

 

 

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to select the best predictors of later achievement in reading, spelling and arithmetics from more than 30 neurocognitive measurements, obtained from assessments of kindergarten and pre-school students. 96 children were assessed with a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment (NEPSY) at the age of 4, 5, or 6 years. The NEPSY includes measures of attention and executive functions, language, sensorimotor functions, visuo-spatial functions, and memory and learning, and is now available in many languages. The children were followed-up three years later, and assessed with an achievement test of reading, spelling, and arithmetics. Preliminary data suggest that general verbal capacities, as evident in tests of verbal comprehension and learning, are the best predictors of reading and spelling in grade 3. Phonological awareness also predicts reading and spelling achievement significantly, but this capacity tends to be of an all-or-none type: once the child gets the idea the performance on this variable increases abruptly. The best predictor of mathematic performance in grade 3 was performance on a three-dimensional block construction task. Surprisingly, early motor capacities were strongly related to performance in reading, spelling and arithmetics in grade 1 and 2.

Publications:

Haeyrinen, T., Serenius-Sirve, S., Korkman, M. (1999). Lukilasse. Lukemisen, kirjoittamisen ja laskemisen seulontatestistoe peruskoulun ala-asteen luokille 1-6. (Screening test of reading, spelling, and arithmetics for basic school grades 1-6). Helsinki: Psykologien kustannus.

Korkman, M. (in press). Applying Luria's diagnostic principles in the neuropsychological assessment of children. Neuropsychology Review.

Korkman, M., Kirk, U., Kemp, S.L. (1998). NEPSY. A developmental neuropsychological assessment. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.

Korkman, M., Kirk, U., & Kemp, S.L. (in press). Developmental assessment of neuropsychological function with the aid of the NEPSY. In: A. Kaufman & N. Kaufman (Eds.). Specific Learning Disabilities: Psychological assessment and evaluation. Cambridge University Press.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I

Finland

Principal investigator(s):

Heikki Lyytinen

Timo Ahonen

Matti Leiwo

Paula Lyytinen

Address: University of Jyvaeskylae

Child Research Centre, Mac

P.O. 40351 Jyvaeskylae

FINLAND

E-mail-address of the contact-person: Hlyytinen@psyka.jyu.fi

More information about the JLD
Publications

Title of study:

Jyvaskyla Longitudinal study of Dyslexia (JLD)

Key words:

precursors of dyslexia children at risk for dyslexia reading and spelling phonological and orthographical skills brain recording (ERPs) cognitive and motor measures

Beginning date of study (month, year): 01-93

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 2006

Number of completed waves: >10 for many and 5 at minimum for the youngest (i.e. before the present age of the youngest – now of 3 year olds)

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): >15 for many and 10 at minimum for all (selective more intensive follow-up of those whose risk status is shown to be increasing). Part of the follow-up measures – like ERPs – can be performed for a subsample only.

Time interval between waves (average): 0,5 - 1 yr.

Maximum sample size: 2x100 families screened from more than 4000

Size of core sample: about 2x90

Age range at first data collection: 2 - 6 days

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? yes

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: yes

Other: used also for making preliminary validation of measures etc. of cognitive development

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Not yet fully specified. At least single case experimental interventions will be done using multiple baseline designs. It is planned that the number of similarly performed single case studies will allow comparison of a number of subgroups of differentially expressed risk for dyslexia / and sequences of interventions with control groups.

Type of treatment group(s):

now under planning – interventions empasizing phonological and naming related skills (possibly combined and applied in counterbalanced orders)

No. of control groups:

Comparison will be based mainly on within subject designs, groups/subjects are working as controls for themselves in the time-series of repeated measures with interventions (before and after) with repetitions of interventions.

Type of control group(s):

the initiation times of the intervention may allow comparison between groups/subjects e.g. to no-treatment levels.

Duration of intervention (weeks or month): 3-5 times/week for 3-4 months (planned)

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month): 2-4 hrs./week

 

 

Measures and Assessment Procedures in the Jyvaeskylae Longitudinal

Study of Dyslexia

 

Age

Content/measure

Setting

Data

1-5 days

Brain responses to speech/nonspeech stimuli

Hospital

ERP + Heart rate

 

Age

Content/measure

Setting

Data

6 months

Brain responses to speech/nonspeech stimuli

Lab.

ERP + Heart rate

 

 

Categorical perception of speech stimuli

Lab.

Head turn

 

 

Parent-child interaction & motor imitation

Lab.

Videotape

 

 

Visual recognition memory

Lab.

Test

Age

Content/measure

Setting

Data

0 12 months

Developmental milestones in 1) vocalization, 2) speech comprehension, 3) motor & fine motor development

Home

Parent diary: checklists

1, 6 & 12 months

Infant Behavior Questionnaire: Temperament

Home

Parental report

4 24 months

Vocalization and speech in interactional situations

(subsample, n = 60)

Home

Monthly video-tapings by parents

Age

Content/measure

Setting

Data

12 months

MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory (MCDI): Vocabulary comprehension and production

Home

Parental report

Age

Content/measure

Setting

Data

14 months

Interaction: parent-child free play and book reading

Lab.

Videotape

 

 

Structured play

Lab.

 

Videotape +

DAT recording

 

 

Observation of wariness in a novel situation: Temperament

Lab.

Videotape

 

 

MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory (MCDI)

Home

Parental report

Age

Content/measure

Setting

Data

18 months

Reynell Developmental Language Scales: Verbal comprehension & expressive language

Lab.

Test

 

 

Structured play

Lab.

Videotape

 

 

Word-imitation task

Lab.

Videotape +

DAT recording

 

 

MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory (MCDI): Vocabulary production, use of suffixes, Maximum Sentence Length

Home

 

 

Parental report

 

 

Age

Content/measure

Setting

Data

24 months

Bayley Scales of Infant Development II: MDI, PDI Language composite, expressive language (naming pictures and objects)

Lab.

Videotape +

DAT recording

 

 

Parent-child free play and book reading

Lab.

Videotape +

DAT recording

 

 

MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory (MCDI)

Home

Parental report

 

 

Questionnaire: Shared reading and joint activities

Home

Parental report

 

Age

Content/measure

Setting

Data

2.5 years

Reynell Developmental Language Scales

Home

Test

 

 

Picture naming task: phonological accuracy of speech production, rhyme repetition

Home

Videotape +

audiotape

 

 

Comprehension of inflectional forms

Home

Test

 

 

Speech elicited in structured play

Home

Videotape

 

 

MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory

Home

Parental report

 

Age

Content/measure

Setting

Data

3 years 1

 

Bayley Scales of Infant Development II: MDI, PDI, Language composite

Lab.

Test

 

 

Boston Naming Test

Lab.

Test

 

 

Parent-child problem solving

 

Lab.

Videotape

 

Age

Content/measure

Setting

Data

3.5 years

Language clubs 2. Group activity for children and their parents involving the individual assessments of children. Groups (6-8 children) meet once a week for 7 to 9 times.

 

Lab.

Videotape

 

 

Age

Content/measure

Setting

Data

3.5 years

 

 

Computer animation

1) Epiphonological skills 3

2) Perception of time-compressed words

3) Rapid naming of pictures

4) Repetition of pseudowords

Lab.

 

 

Computer-aided assessment with touch screen

 

 

NEPSY 4 - Neuropsychological assessment

Lab.

Test

 

 

Orthographic skills 5

Lab.

Test

 

 

Other language measures:

1) Boston Naming Test

2) Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (adaptively)

3) Morphology Test

4) Digit Span

5) RAN: pictures

Lab.

Test

 

 

Parent-child book reading

Lab.

Videotape

 

 

Movement-ABC & Automatisation (dual task: balance & naming)

Lab.

Test +

Videotape

Age

Content/measure

Setting

Data

4 years

Questionnaires:

1) Shared reading & joint activities with the child

2) Day care & peer relations

3) Parenting attitudes, employment, stress

Home

Parental report

 

 

Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC)6

Home

Parental report

 

 

Child Behavior Questionnaire: Temperament

Home

Parental report

Age

Content/measure

Setting

Data

4.5 years

 

Computer animation

1) Epiphonological skills 1

2) Perception of time-compressed words

3) Rapid naming of pictures

4) Repetition of pseudowords

5) Perception of non-speech sounds & sound patterns

Lab.

 

 

 

 

Computer-aided assessment with touch screen

 

 

Other phonological awareness tasks

1) Initial phoneme recognition & production,

2) Rhyme production, 3) Word segmentation

Lab.

Test

 

 

Morphology Test

Lab.

Test

 

 

Reading and orthographic skills 2

Lab.

Test

 

 

Frog Story

Lab.

Test

 

 

Questionnaire: Print exposure (e.g., letters & phonemes)

Lab.

Parental report

 

Age

Content/measure

Setting

Data

5 years

Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test

Lab.

Test

 

 

Morphology Test

Lab.

Test

 

 

Memory: 1) Digit Span, 2) Span for syllables, 3) Memory for manually presented spatial sequences (Corsi blocks)

Lab.

Computer-aided tests (1 & 2)

 

 

Accuracy of representations: perception of phonological variants of words and non-words

Lab.

Computer-aided test

 

 

Reading and orthographic skills 2

Lab.

Videotape

 

 

(WPPSI-R): 3 + 3 subtests 3

Lab.

Videotape

 

 

Parent-child interaction: constructing a story sequence

Lab.

Videotape

 

 

Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC)

Home

Parental report

 

Age

Content/measure

Setting

Data

5.5 yrs

NEPSY 4 - Neuropsychological assessment

Lab.

Test

 

 

Boston Naming Test

Lab.

Test

 

 

RAN: pictures & colors

Lab.

Test

 

 

Executive functions (adaptation of Hanoi Tower)

Lab.

Test

 

 

Phonological awareness: Segmentation, Synthesis, Initial phoneme recognition & production, Rhyme production, Manipulation skills

Lab.

Test

 

 

Reading and orthographic skills 2

Lab.

Test

 

Age

Content/measure

Setting

Data

6 years 

Case studies: training of skills

1) Temporal processing, 2) Phonological skills,

3) Naming, 4) Executive functions, 5) Reading instruction

Day care Home /

Lab.

Tests, videotape

ERP

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FORTHCOMING PHASES

 

Age

Content/measure

Setting

Data

6.5 years

 

Auditory discrimination / categorization: Behavioral discrimination and categorisation - speech stimuli

Lab.

Test

 

 

Reading and orthographic skills: Reading and spelling

Lab.

Test

 

 

Phonological processing: Epi- and metaphonological manipulation

Lab.

Test

 

 

Naming / Articulation: RAN (objects, colors, numbers, letters), RAS

Lab.

Test

 

 

Interview: Strategies

 

 

 

 

 

 

Associative learning: Computer-based assessment

Lab.

Test

 

 

Visual processing: Deficits associated with magnocells

Lab.

Test

 

 

Attention / Executive functions: Computer-based test

Lab.

Test

 

 

Auditory discrimination / categorization:ERP (MMN) - speech and non-speech stimuli

Lab.

Test

 

 

Motor skills / Automatization: Hand preference, Movement ABC

Lab.

Test

 

 

Mathematic skills: DMR (?)

Lab.

Test

Age

Content/measure

Setting

Data

7.5 years

NEPSY - Neuropsychological assessment

 

 

 

 

 

 

Naming / Articulation: Lexical speed, RAN: numbers, letters

Lab.

Test

 

 

Morphological skills

Lab.

Test

 

 

Parent-child interaction: Teaching task

Lab.

Test

 

 

Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC)

Home / School

Parent /teacher

 

 

Questionnaire: Child’s reading habits

Home

Parent

 

 

Age

Content/measure

Setting

Data

8.5 years

IQ: WISC-III

Lab.

Test

 

 

Phonological processing: Metaphonological manipulation skills

Lab.

Test

 

 

Morphological skills

Lab.

Test

 

 

Questionnaire on children’s cognitive and behavioral strategies:

A strategy Test for Children (STS; Onatsu & Nurmi, 1995)

Home

Child

 

 

Questionnaire on children’s task orientation: Behavioral Strategy Rating Scales (BSR; Onatsu & Nurmi, 1995)

School

Teacher

 

 

Questionnaire on parenting styles: Child Rearing Practices Report (CRPR; Roberts, Block & Block, 1984)

Home

Parent

 

 

Questionnaire on parents’ own cognitive and behavioral strategies: Strategy and Attribution Questionnaire (SAQ; Nurmi, Salmela-Aro, & Haavisto, 1995)

 

Home

Parent

Age

Content/measure

Setting

Data

9.5 years

Reading and orthographic skills

Lab.

Test

 

 

Phonological processing: Metaphonological manipulation skills

Lab.

Test

 

 

Naming: RAN - letters

Lab.

Test

 

 

Questionnaire on children’s cognitive and behavioral strategies:

A strategy Test for Children (STS; Onatsu & Nurmi, 1995)

Home

Child

 

 

Questionnaire: Child’s reading habits

Home

Child

 

 

Questionnaire on children’s task orientation: Behavioral Strategy Rating Scales (BSR; Onatsu & Nurmi, 1995)

School

Teacher

ASSESSMENTS CONDUCTED ACCORDING TO GRADE LEVEL

 

Grade 1 1

Content/measure

Setting

Data

 

 

Structured diary of the emerging literacy skills

Home

Parent

 

 

Allu - Reading Test of Primary Grades 2

School

Test

 

 

NMI Literacy Assessment 3

School

Test

 

 

R-Math - Mathematics Test

School

Test

Grade 2

Content/measure

Setting

Data

 

 

Allu - Reading Test of Primary Grades

School

Test

 

 

NMI Literacy Assessment

School

Test

Grade 3

Content/measure

Setting

Data

 

 

Allu - Reading Test of Primary Grades

School

Test

 

 

NMI Literacy Assessment

School

Test

 

 

Listening Comprehension Test (Holopainen, 1996)

School

Test

Grade 4

Content/measure

Setting

Data

 

 

Allu - Reading Test of Primary Grades

School

Test

 

 

NMI Literacy Assessment

School

Test

 

Abstract:

The aim of the Jyvaeskylae prospective Longitudinal study of Dyslexia (JLD) is to search for precursors of dyslexia by following children with (N=100) and without (N=100) risk for dyslexia from birth to school age. At risk children are from families with dyslexic parent (and at least one of his/her close relative with dyslexia). The risk children were selected using two-stage questionnaire-based screening and extensive individual assessment using mainly on reading and spelling measures but complemented with tests assessing phonological and orthographic skills. The development of the children is assessed during 1-2 yearly visits to lab, 1-3 home/school visits and using questionnaires/checklists and video recordings with the help of parents. The age range at each moment of the whole sample is 3.5 years. The oldest children are now 6 years and the youngest assessed thus far 3 years old. The earliest results based on brain recording (ERPs) and head turn conditioning to assess categorical perception of speech sounds at six months age reveal consistent (between these measures) differences between the at risk and control groups. Also some language measures, like vocabulary growth at 3.5 years, maximum sentence length (2.5y), pseudoword repetition (3.5 y), Boston naming (3.5y) show statistically significant but small differences. Cognitive or motor measures have not revealed reliable differences before the age of 3.5 years but only part of the data have been analysed yet.

Publications:

 

I

Finland

Principal investigator(s):

Pekka Niemi

Marja Vauras

Address: University of Turku

Department of Psychology

FIN-20014 Turku

FINLAND

E-mail-address of the contact-person: peknie@utu.fi

Title of study:

Decoding, comprehension and motivation from pre-school to grade 4.

Key words:

Decoding and word recognition spelling comprehension skills motivation metacognition writing ability

Beginning date of study (month, year): 03-92

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 05-97

Number of completed waves: 6

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 6

Time interval between waves (average): 1 yr.

Maximum sample size: 240

Size of core sample: 200

Age range at first data collection: 6;4 - 7;3

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? yes

Type of study:

Correlation study: no

Intervention study: yes

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups: 4x1 (four interventions)

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups: 6

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month): 6 to 13 weeks

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month): 4x20 min./week

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

linguistic awareness

 

listening comprehension

 

motivational orientation

 

metacognition

 

reading comprehension

 

working memory (words, sentences)

 

productive writing

 

spelling

 

WISC-R

 

 

 

Abstract:

Aim of the study:

The purpose was to provide insight into the development of children’s cognitive skills, metacognition and motivation during the first years in the school. The primary interest focused on the bordering areas between the various skills. This is exemplified below.

Support domain: to be trained Target domain: to be improved

Linguistic awareness Word recognition (decoding)

Linguistic awareness Basic skills in mathematics

Decoding Spelling

Decoding Reading Comprehension

Reading comprehension Problem solving in math

Reading comprehension Productive writing

Reading comprehension Constructing knowledge

Constructing knowledge Skilled learning and conceptual change

Linguistic skills (in mother tongue) EFL

Interventions:

Effective intervention programmes were created in linguistic awareness, decoding, comprehension, metacognition and math. The interventions required no resources in addition to those already utilised by the school.

Training in linguistic awareness in grade 1 aimed to clarify the self-image of children-at-risk and to improve their knowledge of rhymes, words and syllables. The final target was phonological awareness. The transfer effects on decoding and spelling were positive, clearly exceeding those of traditional special education instruction.

In grade 2, a computer-assisted programme featured synthetic-speech feedback upon request, that is, when the reader encountered a decoding or comprehension obstacle. Clear-cut gains were observed in decoding and spelling but none in comprehension.

Training in comprehension and metacognition in grade 3 had a strong emphasis on verbal math problems. Children-at-risk showed significant gains which were qualified by a sex x domain interaction. Girls gained in mostly in reading and boys in math.

Intervention in English as a Second Language is still being analysed.

Main results:

Intervention based on phonological awareness showed the usual positive findings. Especially first-graders with inferior cognitive level benefited from training. Some of them also had extensive difficulties with comprehension, both while listening and reading. These children and a group of unexpected decoding failures participated in the computer-assisted decoding and comprehension training in grade 2. The intervention brought about sizeable gains in decoding and spelling but not in comprehension. The latter was explicitly dealt with in grade 3 together with verbal math problems. Now a motivational pattern started to emerge. The prognosis was good given that the child had a reasonable level of task-orientation to begin with. The prognosis became drastically poorer if social or ego-defensive orientation prevailed.

The results have been discussed in terms of persistent learning difficulties associated with the psycho-social vulnerability of the child, most commonly reflected as a motivational pattern not favourable to learning. If such a pattern does not exist, the intervention prognosis is invariably good.

Applications:

Centre for Learning Research at the University of Turku now disseminates a computer-assisted training programme for beginning readers, a learning game promoting mathematical problem-solving and reading comprehension as well as a number of diagnostic tests.

Publications:

Dufva, M. & Voeten, M. J. M. Native language literacy and phonological memory as prerequisites for learning English as a foreign language. Applied Psycholinguistics. (in press)

Dufva, M., Niemi, P. & Voeten, M. J. M. The role of phonological memory, decoding, and comprehension skills in reading development: From pre-school to grade 2. Reading and Writing. An Interdisciplinary Journal (in press).

Hyoenae, J. DeStefano, C., Hujanen, H., Lindeman, J., Poskiparta, E., D'Heurle, A. & Niemi, P. (1995). Primers as socializing agents in American and Finnish schools. Comparative Education Review 39, 280-298.

Kinnunen, R., Vauras, M. & Niemi, P. (1998). Comprehension monitoring in beginning readers. Scientific Studies in Reading 2, 353-375.

Lepola, J., Salonen, P. & Vauras, M. The development of motivational orientation patterns as a function of differing reading skills careers from pre-school to the second grade. Learning and Instruction. (in press)

Niemi, P. & Tiuraniemi, J. (1995). Tests guide the school psychologist, not the learning problem ? Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research 39, 99-106.

Niemi, P. & Poskiparta, E. (1997). Successful remedial teaching with fewer resources. In: Eriksson, B. & R?nnberg, J. (Eds.), Reading Disability and Its Treatment. Link?ping University, Sweden: EMIR Report No. 2. Pp. 67-84.

Niemi, P., Poskiparta, E., Vauras, M. & M?ki, H. (1998). Reading and writing difficulties do not always occur as the researcher expects. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 39, 159-161.

Niemi, P., Kinnunen, R., Poskiparta, E. & Vauras, M. Do pre-school data predict resistance to treatment in phonological awareness, decoding and spelling ? In: Lundberg, I., Toennessen, F-E. & Austad, I., (Eds), Dyslexia: Advances in Theory and Practice. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers b.v. (in press).

Poskiparta, E., Niemi, P. & Vauras, M. Poor reading in grade 1: Who benefits from training in linguistic awareness in the first grade and what components of it show training effects ? Journal of Learning Disabilities. (in press)

Poskiparta, E., Vauras, M. & Niemi, P. Promoting word recognition, spelling and reading comprehension skills in a computer-based training program in grade 2. In: Reitsma, P. & Verhoeven, L. (Eds.), Problems and Interventions in Literacy Development. Amsterdam: Kluwer. Pp. 335-348.

Salonen, P., Lepola, J. & Niemi, P. (1998). The development of first graders' reading skill as a function of pre-school motivational orientation and phonemic awareness. European Journal of Psychology of Education 13, 155-174.

Vauras, M. (1998). Resistance to treatment: Working with motivationally highly vulnerable students. In A. Efklides (Ed.), Motivation in education. Thessaloniki: Ellinika Grammata. Pp. 139-155. (In Greek)

Vauras, M., Kinnunen, R. & Rauhanummi, T. The role of metacognition in the context of integrated strategy intervention. European Journal of Psychology of Education.(in press)

C

France

Principal investigator(s):

Gilles Bardon

Address: Univ. Paris 5

App + 049

17, avenue d´Italie

F- 75 013 Paris

FRANCE

E-mail-address of the contact-person: bardon@psycho.univ-paris5.fr

Title of study:

Subsystems of working memory and word recognition mechanisms

Key words:

word recognition working memory individual differences

Beginning date of study (month, year): 04-96

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 06-98

Number of completed waves: 2

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 2

Time interval between waves (average): 1 yr.

Maximum sample size: 55 subjects + 36 subjects (2 samples)

Size of core sample: 45 + 27

Age range at first data collection: 8,5 yrs. (sample 1); 9,5 yrs. (sample 2)

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? yes

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

Counting span

numerical working memory test

Number span

numerical working memory test

Verbal span

verbal working memory test

Spatial span

visuo-spatial working memory test

Etoiles span

visuo-spatial working memory test

Adaptation of M. Peanut

visuo-spatial working memory test

AB - Reasoning Test

test that is supposed to evaluate the central executive´s capacity of the working memory

Pseudo Words reading Test (BELEC)

test that is supposed to assess the efficiency of the phonological word recognition mechanisms

Irregular words reading test (BELEC)

test that is supposed to assess the efficiency of the orthographical word recognition mechanisms

Regular words reading test (BELEC)

test that is supposed to assess the global efficiency of the word recognition mechanisms

Test de lecture silencienne

comprehension reading test

 

 

Abstract:

The present study concerns the implication of working memory in reading. It aims at showing the links between the modalities of Baddeley and Hitch´s (1974) working memory model and the relative efficiency of two ways in word recognition: the phonological route or the orthographic one. We thought that both types of reading mechanisms could differentially be linked to the different components of working memory. These links could change as the child develops its reading competencies. Several experiments were used to investigate the relationships between working memory and word recognition: Verbal, numeric and visuo-spatial working memory tasks were used in order to estimate the efficiency of each of the components of the working memory as they were defined by Baddeley and Hitch (1974): the articulatory loop, the visuo-spatial sketch-pad and the central executive. Pseudowords and irregular words reading tests allowed us to evaluate the efficiency of the phonological mechanisms on the one hand, the efficiency of the orthographic mechanisms in word recognition on the other hand. These working memory and word recognition tests were administered to 55 and 36 (respectively) 3rd and 4th grade children. The children were tested again one year later with the same procedure. We just begin to analyse the data.

Publications:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

France

Principal investigator(s):

Mireille Bastien-Toniazzo

Pascale Cole

Address: CNRS & Universite de Provence

CREPCO -UMR 6561 Sciences de l'Education

29 av. R. Schuman

F- 13621 Aix-en-Provence cedex 1

FRANCE

E-mail-address of the contact-person: bastien@aixup.univ-aix.fr

Title of study:

Syllable identification in beginning French readers (study in progress)

Key words:

reading grapho-phonological learning

Beginning date of study (month, year): 09-98

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 06-99

Number of completed waves: 3

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 3

Time interval between waves (average): 4 mths.

Maximum sample size: 62

Size of core sample: 62

Age range at first data collection: 5;3 - 6;11 yrs.

Data computerized? no

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):Purpose:

detection of a written syllable in a polysyllabic word

 

detection of an oral syllable in a polysyllabic word

 

 

 

Abstract:

We studied the development of grapho-phonological learning in French. Sixty-two first grade children had to read aloud, during four sessions from november to june, 40 trisyllabic pseudo-words. The task looked like a game: imaginary characters or animals appeared on the screen of a computer with its "unknown name" written below. Those pseudo-words were divided into four graphemic structures which need different segmentations: (i) CV|CV|CV e.g. panoti; (ii) CVC|CV|CV e.g. bontume; (iii) CVC|CV|CV e.g. barmide; (iiii) CV|CCV|CV e.g. mabroti.

The 9920 responses were classified into six categories which appeared in this order along the sessions: (1) attempts to identify the character ("it's a Martian"); (2) logographic reading ("mum" for the pseudo-word "mabroti"); (3) letter(s) identification ("a /i /o" for "mabroti"); (4) digram(s) identification ("ro" for "mabroti"); (5) larger parts of the word with distorsions ("bor/to" for "mabroti"); (6) correct response. Within the fifth, three categories were anew listed: letters omission ("bo/ti" for "mabroti), letters addition ("bo/ro/ti" for "mabroti") and letters permutation ("bor/ti" for "mabroti").

Individual analyses showed that when children begin to pronounce written words, they don't apply graphemes-phonemes rules. Actually they try to pick out, whatever its or their location in the word, pattern(s) of letters coding oral syllable(s). This strategy leads them to non-legal segmentations of words. Moreover, when faced with words they can't still read, they reduce the difficulty in "distorting" the words. This strategy allows them to find known patterns, the simplest of them being CV bigrams. Instead of a cognitive limitation, this phenomenon corresponds to a general heuristic consisting in leading the unknown back to the known.

Publications:

Bastien-Toniazzo, M., Magnan, A., & Bouchafa, H. (1996). Une etude longitudinale des strategies d'apprentissage de la correspondance grapho-phonologique en Français [A longitudinal study of grapho-phonological learning processes in French], Revue de Psychologie de l'Education, 2, 37-65.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

France

Principal investigator(s): Mireille Bastien-Toniazzo

Annie Magnan

Houria Bouchafa

Address: CNRS & Universite de Provence

CREPCO -UMR 6561 Sciences de l'Education

29 av. R. Schuman

F- 13621 Aix-en-Provence cedex 1

FRANCE

E-mail-address of the contact-person: bastien@aixup.univ-aix.fr

Title of study:

A longitudinal study of graphophonological acquisition in French

Key words:

reading acquisition grapho-phonological learning

Beginning date of study (month, year): 09-94

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 06-95

Number of completed waves: 4

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 4

Time interval between waves (average): 3 mths.

Maximum sample size: 67

Size of core sample: 62

Age range at first data collection: 5;5 - 6;10 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other: experimental study with individual protocols analysis

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

pseudo-words reading aloud (tri-syllabic pseudo-words

 

 

 

Abstract:

The main objective of this study is to test a knowledge based simulation model, elaborated in a previous longitudinal research in order to explain reading errors produced by first grade children. This model relies on two assumptions: (1) in the beginning of the grapho-phonological acquisition, the child tries to extract, from the series of letters which forms a word, graphic patterns corresponding to an oral syllable; (2) these patterns are stored either in an ordered representation or in a non-ordered representation. Permutation errors, often pointed out in this phase of reading acquisition, would then be the mark of a non-ordered representation of the graphic patterns. Two experiments were proposed to new first grade children, in the middle of the school year. In experiment 1, they had to detect an oral syllable in written pseudo-words in which the first trigram did or not correspond to the legal order. In experiment 2, they had to read aloud trisyllabic pseudo-words in which the first trigram was presented in four different orders. Reading errors correspond to the predictions our model allows to do. Moreover, the absence of correlation between the two tasks, suggests that the knowledge activated depends on the type of activity.

Publications:

Bastien-Toniazzo, M. , Magnan, A. & Bouchafa, H. (1996). Une etude longitudinale des strategies d´apprentissage de la correspondence grapho-phonologique en Francais. Revue de Psychologie de l´Education, 1(2), 37-65.

Bastien-Toniazzo, M. , Magnan, A. & Bouchafa, H. (1999). Nature des representations du langage unit aux debuts de l´apprentissage de la lecture: un modèle interpretatif. Journal International de Psychologie (International Journal of Psychology), 34(1), 43 - 58.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I

France

Principal investigator(s):

Severine Casalis

Address: Universite de Lille III-Charles de Gaulle

UPRES EA 1059

Unite de recherche sur l'evolution des comportements et l'apprentissage

F- BP 149 59 653 Villeneuve d'Ascq

FRANCE

E-mail-address of the contact-person: casalis@univ-lille3.fr

Title of study:

Effect of morphological training in Kindergarten.

Key words:

morphological awareness phonological awareness reading acquisition reading acquisition morphological training phonological training

Beginning date of study (month, year): 12-98

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 06-00

Number of completed waves: 2

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 3

Time interval between waves (average): 10 mths.

Maximum sample size: 90

Size of core sample:

Age range at first data collection: 5;0 - 5;11 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: no

Intervention study: yes

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups: 2

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups: 1

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month): 12 weeks

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month): twice/week (20-30 minutes)

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

Test of Reception of Syntax (ECOSSE, adapted from the TROG)

General measures

Vocabulary (Dague et Lege, forme A)

General measures

Mnemonic span

General measures

Letters knowledge

General measures

- first syllable suppression

phonological awareness

- phoneme oddity task

phonological awareness

- first phone suppression

phonological awareness

- segmentation and synthesis of morphemes (isolated words)

Morphological analysis

- words and pseudowords derivation in context (completion of a sentence)

Morphological analysis

- words and pseudowords flexion

Morphological analysis

 

 

Abstract:

Aim of the study:

The morphological and phonological comparison study pursues a double objective.

First, in order to examine more precisely relationship between morphological awareness and phonological awareness, effects of improvement of phonological analysis in morphological analysis and reciprocally are directly tested. Second, as morphological analysis is correlated with reading acquisition, and moreover is partially predictive of reading achievement (Carlisle, 1993, Casalis and Louis-Alexandre), a training study is necessary in order to answer the question of causality. Is morphological analysis a cause of reading achievement? The second aim of the study is to examine if a training of morphological awareness before the onset of literacy has a positive effect on later reading achievement.

Treatment:

Children were trained twice a week (20-30 minutes), in small groups (4 to 5 children).

The experimenter proposed some games, with examples. Each child had to give a response alternatively (in order to ensure participation of all the children of the group).

Only oral tasks were proposed, excluding any recourse to a written form.

Tasks implied in the training session were for morphology:

- words counting

- inversion of compound words

- completion of sentence with derived forms

- root segmentation in sentence completion

- production of morphologically complex words

- roots and affix comprehension

- segmentation of derived forms

- synthesis of root and affix

- flexion : put sentence in the plural form

- flexion : gender transformation

- flexion: conjugation de verbs

For the phonological training, the procedure was very similar except for the manipulated units.

The procedure was also this proposed by Pierre Lecocq in his training study of phonological awareness. Units manipulated were: rhymes, syllables, phones in context, phonemes.

As the study took place this year, results are not yet available.

Publications:

Casalis, S. (1995). Lecture et dyslexies de l'enfant. Lille : Presses Universitaires du Septentrion.

Sprenger-Charolles, L., Casalis, S. (1996). Lire. Lecture et ecriture : acquisition et troubles du developpement. Paris : Presses Universitaires de France.

Casalis, S. (1996). Dyslexies du developpement : presentation de deux cas contrastes. Revue de Neuropsychologie, vol 6, N 2, 189-203.

Sprenger-Charolles, L, Casalis, S., (1995). Reading and spelling acquisition in french first graders : longitudinal evidence. Reading and writing : an interdisciplinary Journal, 7, 39-63.

Casalis, S. (1997). De l'oral à l'ecrit. A.N.A.E. N 43, 119-120.

Casalis, S., Louis-Alexandre, M.-F. (in press). Morphological analysis, phonological analysis and learning to read., Reading and Writing.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

France

Principal investigator(s): Severine Casalis

Marie-France Louis-Alexandre

Address: Universite de Lille III-Charles de Gaulle

UPRES EA 1059

Unite de recherche sur l'evolution des comportements et l'apprentissage

F- BP 149 59 653 Villeneuve d'Ascq

FRANCE

E-mail-address of the contact-person: casalis@univ-lille3.fr

Title of study:

Morphological analysis, phonological analysis and learning to read French: a longitudinal study

Key words:

morphological awareness phonological analysis learning to read

Beginning date of study (month, year): 12-92

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 06-96

Number of completed waves: 3

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 3

Time interval between waves (average): 12 mths.

Maximum sample size: 45

Size of core sample: 45

Age range at first data collection: 5;0 - 5;11 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? yes

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

phoneme oddity task

phonological awareness

first phone suppression

phonological awareness

first syllable suppression

phonological awareness

completion of sentences with derived forms

morphological analysis

root segmentation in sentence completion

morphological analysis

production of morphologically complex words

morphological analysis

roots and affix comprehension

morphological analysis

segmentation of derived forms

morphological analysis

synthesis of root and affix

morphological analysis

flexion: put sentence in the plural form

morphological analysis

flexion: gender transformation

morphological analysis

flexion: conjugation de verbs

morphological analysis

Test of Reception of Syntax (ECOSSE, adapted from the TROG)

general measures

Vocabulary (Dague et Lege, forme A)

general measures

Mnemonic span

general measures

Letters knowledge

general measures

 

general measures

 

 

Abstract:

This paper presents a longitudinal study, from kindergarten to second grade, which aims to examine the relationship between morphological analysis, phonological analysis and learning to read. Three phonological awareness tasks, five derivational and four inflectional subtests were administered to fifty children at each of the three levels. Evolution of performance was analysed through the three years. Data showed that with the exception of two subtests, performance increased from kindergarten to first grade and from first grade to second grade, without reaching ceiling performance in second grade, at least for morphological subtests. Links between morphological and phonological analyses were very strong: in particular, syllable segmentation was highly correlated with the morphological subtests in kindergarten while phonemic segmentation was correlated with morphological subtests in first and second grade. There were also strong links between morphological analysis and reading. Regression analyses showed that while phonological awareness explained a major part of variance in first grade, both phonological and morphological scores explained significance part of variance of both decoding and comprehension reading scores in second grade. Thus, this longitudinal study contributes to the evidence of a link between both phonological and morphological analysis and learning to read in French.

 

 

Publications:

Casalis, S. (1995). Lecture et dyslexies de l'enfant. Lille : Presses Universitaires du Septentrion.

Sprenger-Charolles, L., Casalis, S. (1996). Lire. Lecture et ecriture : acquisition et troubles du developpement. Paris : Presses Universitaires de France.

Casalis, S. (1996). Dyslexies du developpement : presentation de deux cas contrastes. Revue de Neuropsychologie, vol 6, N 2, 189-203.

Sprenger-Charolles, L, Casalis, S., (1995). Reading and spelling acquisition in french first graders : longitudinal evidence. Reading and writing : an interdisciplinary Journal, 7, 39-63.

Casalis, S. (1997). De l'oral à l'ecrit. A.N.A.E. N 43, 119-120.

Casalis, S., Louis-Alexandre, M.-F. (in press). Morphological analysis, phonological analysis and learning to read., Reading and Writing.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

France

Principal investigator(s): Severine Casalis

Address: Universite de Lille III-Charles de Gaulle

UPRES EA 1059

Unite de recherche sur l'evolution des comportements et l'apprentissage

F- BP 149 59 653 Villeneuve d'Ascq

FRANCE

E-mail-address of the contact-person: casalis@univ-lille3.fr

Title of study:

Development of the written lexicon in contrasted cases of developmental dyslexia.

Key words:

phonological awareness developmental dyslexia follow-up study word recognition

Beginning date of study (month, year): 01-91

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 06-93

Number of completed waves: 4

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 4

Time interval between waves (average): 6 mths.

Maximum sample size: 30

Size of core sample: 14

Age range at first data collection: 9;3 - 12;11 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? yes

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

phoneme oddity task

phonological awareness

first phone suppression

phonological awareness

spoonerism

phonological awareness

words reading and spelling 1

words varying in syllabic structure (CVCVCV, CCVCVC, CVCCVC)

words reading and spelling 2

words varying both in frequency and regularity

pronunciation of pseudowords 1

words and pseudowords varying in length

pronunciation of pseudowords 2

effect of analogy in pseudoword reading

pronunciation of pseudowords 3

effect of homophony in pseudoword reading

pronunciation of pseudowords 4

effect of presence or absence of a real root in complex pseudowords

lexical decision in the visual modality (tell if a letters string is a word or not)

effect of homophony and frequency of the real form

semantic decision in visual modality (tell if a letters string belong to the announced category)

effect of pseudo-homophony and visual orthographic controls

visual matching (tell if two strings of letters are identical or not)

effect of position of the different letter

 

 

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to examine individually word recognition in developmental dyslexia cases. After examination of the repartition of the 31 cases in a "surface- phonological axis", by means of all the tasks (performances scored in terms of exactitude and rapidity) a follow up of the maximum of individuals was conducted in order to examine evolution of both processes implied in classical dual routes models of word recognition (Coltheart, 1978).

Two concurrent developmental models were tested: an independent developmental model, in which, at least in cases of dyslexia, evolution of both procedures are independent. In such a way, a surface dyslexic case will show improvement in the phonological procedure, and not in the orthographic procedure, and the reverse is expected in the case of phonological cases. This model (implicit in a large number of developmental dyslexia studies) was challenged by a phonological model, based on longitudinal data collected by normal young readers, which indicates that development of orthographic procedure depends on development of phonological procedure (Gough & Walsh, 1992). In the last case, we expected some correlation between progress in irregular words and in pseudowords. Evolution of profiles were also examined. Results indicated that only for very few cases, a developmental dissociation between both procedures could be observed. In majority of cases, development of orthographic procedure depended first on phonological improvement. Moreover, we founded that some phonological cases became "regular" (comparable to lexical-age control) or surface cases, while the reverse never appeared.

Publications:

Casalis, S. (1995). Lecture et dyslexies de l'enfant. Lille : Presses Universitaires du Septentrion.

Sprenger-Charolles, L., Casalis, S. (1996). Lire. Lecture et ecriture : acquisition et troubles du developpement. Paris : Presses Universitaires de France.

Casalis, S. (1996). Dyslexies du developpement : presentation de deux cas contrastes. Revue de Neuropsychologie, vol 6, N 2, 189-203.

Sprenger-Charolles, L, Casalis, S., (1995). Reading and spelling acquisition in french first graders : longitudinal evidence. Reading and writing : an interdisciplinary Journal, 7, 39-63.

Casalis, S. (1997). De l'oral à l'ecrit. A.N.A.E. N 43, 119-120.

Casalis, S., Louis-Alexandre, M.-F. (in press). Morphological analysis, phonological analysis and learning to read., Reading and Writing.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

France

Principal investigator(s):

Claude Chevrie-Muller

Tanine Goutard

Address: Hopital de la Salpetrière

Laboratoire de Recherche sur le langage, INSERM

F- 75651 Paris Cedex 13

FRANCE

E-mail-address of the contact-person: claude.chevrie@psl.ap-hop-paris.Fr

Title of study:

Linguistic abilities and reading and spelling proficiency: Follow-up of 488 children from kindergarten to Grade 2.

Key words:

Language abilities reading spelling

Beginning date of study (month, year): 02-91

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 06-93

Number of completed waves: 3

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 3

Time interval between waves (average): 1 yr.

Maximum sample size: 910

Size of core sample: 488

Age range at first data collection: 5;2 - 6;5 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

Draw-a-man Test & Visuo-Motor Test (copy of geometric figures)

Kindergarten - Visuo-Motor skills

"Classification" subtest of "Echelle de developpement cognitif de l´enfant", Chevrie-Muller et coll., 1984

Kindergarten - Cognitive evaluation

Subtests from the battery "Epreuves pour l´examen du langage", Chevrie-Muller et coll., 1981

Kindergarten - Verbal abilities: Phonology (production): frequent and unfrequent words/vocabulary (naming pictures)

Subtests from the battery "Epreuves pour l´examen du langage", Chevrie-Muller et coll., 1981

Kindergarten –

Verbal Memory: Digits & sentences

Subtests from the MSCA (McCarthy, 1976-1991), French Adaptation.

Kindergarten –

Verbal integration (comprehension & production)

Test de conscience phonologique (Sprenger-Charolles, 1994)

Kindergarten

Phonological awareness

same instruments as for Kindergarten evaluation

1st grade

Language and verbal memory evaluation

Test BATELEM, Evaluation des acquisitions scolaires (Savigny, 1974-1989)

1st grade

reading & spelling (non-sense words + text)

Batterie de lecture (Inizan, 1988)

1st grade

reading comprehension

same instrument as for 1st grade (8.)

2nd grade

reading & spelling

same instrument as for 1st grade (9.)

2nd grade

reading comprehension

 

 

Abstract:

The main purpose of the present longitudinal study was to determine the relationship between measures collected in kindergarten and later reading skills at second-grade level (February to April). The individual testing was administered by speech therapists using standardised tests (see Table: Test instruments). The program included three waves: Kindergarten, first-grade, second-grade. At the start of the study tests were administered to a total of 900 children and the core sample included 488 subjects. Linguistic abilities (phonological awareness, spoken language including phonology and vocabulary, lexical access), verbal short-term memory (sentence repetition, digit repetition) and grapho-motor ability were assessed in kindergarten (5 to 6 year-old children) and Grade 1. Reading and spelling assessment took place at Grade 1 and Grade 2. Two environment factors were included in the analysis: parental socio-cultural level and bilingualism. The statistical analyses used were simple correlation (r coefficient) and multiple regression (backward stepwise). Multiple regression was performed for three dependent variables: Grade 2 reading comprehension, reading efficiency (aloud) and spelling. Results (those reported here concern the relationship between kindergarten, and Grade 1, independent variables and the Grade 2 dependent variable "reading comprehension", using multiple regression analysis). Significant correlation (Fisher test) was demonstrated between some of the kindergarten variables (i.e. vocabulary, digit memory, sentence repetition, grapho-motor ability) and Grade 2 reading comprehension (multiple correlation coefficient - R2 =.25). Significant relationship was also found between Grade 1 linguistic (phonological production, vocabulary, lexical access) and cognitive abilities and Grade 2 "reading comprehension" (R2 = .24). When including into the group of Grade 1 independent variables the reading and spelling Grade 1 test results, R2 increased up to .47. With environmental factors taken into account the part of the explicated variance rises up to 49%.

Publications:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

France

Principal investigator(s):

Elisabeth Demont

Jean Emile Gombert

Address: Universite Strasbourg

Faculte de Psychologie & des Sciences de l'Education

12 rue Goethe

F- 67000 Strasbourg

FRANCE

E-mail-address of the contact-person: Elisabeth.Demont@psycho-ulp.u-strasbg.fr

Title of study:

Metalinguistic development and learning to read.

Key words:

phonological awareness syntactic awareness learning to read recoding skills comprehension skills intelligence vocabulary

Beginning date of study (month, year): 03-91

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 04-94

Number of completed waves: 6

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 6

Time interval between waves (average): 5 mths.

Maximum sample size: 38

Size of core sample: 23

Age range at first data collection: 5;7 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

Concepts about linguistic units

Forty cards are presented, in each card are: written sentences - mono-, bi- or trisyllabic words or non-words. The child had to respond to our questions: (1) Can we read the card? (2) Is there a letter? (3) Is there a word? (4) Is there a sentence?

Syllable counting and pronunciation

The child had to count and to pronounce the syllables composing the words.

Initial syllable detection

The child had to delete the initial syllable of 16 words.

final syllable detection

The child had to delete the final syllable of 16 words.

Middle syllable detection

The child had to delete the middle syllable of 16 words.

Syllable inversion

The child had to reverse the syllables of 16 bisyllabic words.

Phoneme counting and denomination

The child had to count and to pronounce the phonemes comprising 16 words.

Initial phoneme deletion

The child had to delete the initial phoneme of 16 words.

Final phoneme deletion

The child had to delete the final phoneme of 16 words.

Middle phoneme deletion

The child had to delete the median phoneme of 16 triphonemic words.

Phoneme inversion

The child had to inverse the phonemes of 16 unisyllabic words.

Lexical segmentation of sentences

The child had to count and to pronounce the words in 24 sentences.

Grammatical judgment

The child had to judge the grammaticality of 20 correct sentences and 20 agrammatical sentences.

Grammatical correction

The child had to correct the 20 agrammatical sentences.

Grammatical correction of asemantic and agrammatical sentences

The child had to correct the agrammaticality of 16 asemantic and agrammatical sentences without correcting the asemantic anomaly.

Tests of reading

Two standardised reading tests were administered: The first measured recoding skills and the second measured comprehension.

Raven´s Progressive Matrices

This test measured non-verbal intelligence.

WISC-R Vocabulary subtest

This test measured vocabulary.

Abstract:

This study was designed to investigate the relations between two metalinguistic abilities (phonological awareness and syntactic awareness) and two components of reading (recoding abilities and comprehension). In order to study these connections, a four-year follow-up study comprising 23 children was set up. These children had been tested repetitively during their first years of learning to read. Results were analysed with fixed-order regression in which the dependent variable was either recoding abilities or comprehension performances; the first steps were extraneous variables (intelligence and vocabulary levels) and the final step was that of metalinguistic measures. Stepwise regressions were performed including all the measures (metalinguistic performances and extraneous variables). Results indicated that children´s phonological awareness predicts later recoding abilities, while syntactic awareness predicts later reading comprehension after effects of extraneous variables have been ruled out.

Publications:

Demont, E. & Gombert, J.E. (1996). Phonological awareness as a predictor of recoding skills and syntactic awareness as a predictor of comprehension skills. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 66, 315-332.

Gaux, C. & Demont, E. (1997). Conscience phonologique, syntaxique et lecture: Etude chez les jeunes enfants et les pre-adolescents. In C. Barre-De Miniac & B. Lete (Eds.): L´illetrisme - de la prevention chez l´enfant aux strategies de formation chez l´adulte. De Boeck.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

France

Principal investigator(s):

Jean Ecalle

Address: Universite Lumière Lyon 2

Institut de psychologie

5 av Mendès

F- 69676 Bron Cedex

FRANCE

E-mail-address of the contact-person: Jean.Ecalle@univ-lyon2.fr

Title of study:

What can predict reading and spelling skills in the first grades?

Key words:

academic success prediction reading spelling

Beginning date of study (month, year): 03-92

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 06-95

Number of completed waves: 4

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 4

Time interval between waves (average): 10 mths.

Maximum sample size: 96

Size of core sample: 68

Age range at first data collection: 5;10 yrs.

Data computerized? no

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

Comprehension test (1st wave: 5;10 yrs.)

Assessment of oral language

Phonological awareness (1st wave: 5;10 yrs.)

Syllables and phonemes

Attitude in classroom (1st wave: 5;10 yrs.)

Attention, language skill and autonomy assessed by teachers.

Conceptualizations about written language (1st wave: 5;10 yrs.)

Assessment of knowledge about test shapes, word structure

Questionnaire of social representations about literacy (1st wave: 5;10 yrs.)

 

Logical non-verbal test (2nd wave: 6;7 yrs.)

 

Attitude in classroom (2nd wave: 6;7 yrs.)

 

Word spelling (3rd wave: 7;1 yrs.)

 

Conceptualizations about written language (3rd wave: 7;1 yrs.)

 

Attitude in classroom (3rd wave: 7;1 yrs.)

 

Reading comprehension (4th wave: 8;1 yrs.)

 

Reading words (4th wave: 8;1 yrs.)

 

Conceptualizations about written language (4th wave: 8;1 yrs.)

 

 

 

Abstract:

Placed in cognitive psychology and psycholinguistic currents, this research concerns a sample of 68 pupils observed during 3 years (between 5 and 8). Among a set of indicators of success in reading and spelling, we were interested more particularly in pupil assessment by teacher, in oral language comprehension, in metaphonological skills, in non-verbal component of intelligence (logic) and in conceptualisations children about language. It was found that assessment pupil by teacher (language level, attentional capacities and autonomy in school work) is one of the most powerful indicators to explain the later skills in reading and spelling.

Publications:

Ecalle, J. (in press). Prediction de reussite scolaire en lecture-ecuiture. Revue Europeenne de Psychologie Appliquee.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

France

Principal investigator(s):

Philippe Guimard

Address: Universite de Nantes

Faculte des lettres et sciences humaines

BP 81 277

F- 44 312 Nantes Cedex 3

FRANCE

E-mail-address of the contact-person:

Title of study:

Contribution to the study of reading and spelling acquisition from Kindergarten to second Grade.

Key words:

spelling acquisition relations between reading and spelling profiles in spelling cognitive constraints on spelling acquisition and spelling difficulties

Beginning date of study (month, year): 06-92

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 03-94

Number of completed waves: 3 (6 assessments in kindergarten; 3 assessments in 1st grade;

1 assessment in 2nd grade)

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 3

Time interval between waves (average): 1 yr. (from kindergarten to 1st grade); 8-9 mths. (from 1st to 2nd grade)

Maximum sample size: 98

Size of core sample: 91

Age range at first data collection: 6;5 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? yes

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

Kindergarten: O-20

oral comprehension

Kindergarten: P.A.M.S.

perception, analogies and spatial manipulations in problem solving

Kindergarten: phonology

syllabic segmentation, phonemic segmentation

Kindergarten: conceptualization of writing system

observations inspired of E. Ferreiro´s observations

Kindergarten: graphomotricity

graphomotricity abilities

Kindergarten: reading of a book

evaluation of children´s knowledge of reading convention (from left to right, etc.)

first grade: E-20

reading comprehension

first grade: E.C.I.M.E.

words reading

first grade: spelling test

evaluation of spelling abilities in a task in which children had to write words under pictures

second grade: spelling test

evaluation of spelling abilities in a task in which children had to write words under pictures

 

 

Abstract:

This longitudinal study was conducted with 91 children followed from kindergarten until grade two.

Main goals derived from a cognitive approach:

- to identify spelling contrasted profiles at the end of the first grade and to measure their evolution in the middle of the following year;

- to describe the links between reading and spelling at the beginning of written language acquisition;

- to show, on an overall and differential level, the influence of precursors – the latter have been evaluated in kindergarten -, on the spelling development.

The results show that:

- Four profiles of spelling abilities can be described at the end of first grade: good spellers (50% of the sample), children who cannot write any of the words (10%), and two middle profiles (20% for each) who present a same low level of spelling performance but who differs in terms of kind of spelling errors (phonological vs. non-phonological).

- There is a narrow link between reading and spelling words at the end of the first grade.

- Oral comprehension, knowledge of conventions of reading and conceptualisation of writing systems are common predictors of spelling and writing. Nevertheless, phonological and graphomotricity abilities and abilities in problem solving appear to be specific predictors of spelling performances.

- The four profiles of spelling abilities identified at the end of first grade had very different cognitive profiles in kindergarten.

The main conclusion to be drawn from this research is that there are different forms of spelling difficulties at the end of first grade which depends on the nature and the weight of cognitive constraints. These constraints are identifiable before formal spelling instruction begins in school.

 

 

 

Publications:

Guimard, P. (1997). Representation de l´ecrit et competences cognitives en fin de maternelle. Enfance, 4, 469-482.

 

C

France

Principal investigator(s):

Agnès Kipffer-Piquard

Liliane Sprenger-Charolles

Address: Universite de Paris

Phonetics

3, rue Saint-Fiacre

F- 54000 Nancy

FRANCE

E-mail-address of the contact-person: kipffer@club-internet.fr

Title of study:

Phonological difficulties and dyslexia: Longitudinal study of a group "at risk" and of a control group from nursery school to second grade of primary school (4 to 8 years old).

Key words:

Dyslexia prevention of dyslexia phonological and metaphonological deficits speech processing

Beginning date of study (month, year): 09-97

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 06-00

Number of completed waves: 18 measurement points each year

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 18x3

Time interval between waves (average): 1 yr.

Maximum sample size: 200

Size of core sample: 90

Age range at first data collection: 4 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? not yet

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other: prediction study

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

TVAP (Deltour & Hupkens, 1980)

Verbal IQ

Progressive Matrice Couleur (Raven, 1981)

Nonverbal IQ

EDP adapted (Kipffer,1997)

Metaphonological capacities, similarity assessment (nonwords)

bi-syllables & three syllables items

(Sprenger-Charolles, 1994)

Metaphonological capacities, syllables deletion

(nonwords)

bi-phonemes (cv) & three phonemes (ccv) items

(Sprenger-Charolles, 1994; Kipffer, 1997)

Phoneme deletion

non word repetition

3 syllables to 6 syllables items

(Sprenger-Charolles, 1994)

Phonological STM

Melodies (Lacert, 1994)

Musical awareness

Cubes de Corsi

Visual STM

ERTL4

bi-syllables to 3 syllables items

(Roy-Maeder, 1990)

Phonological STM

Perception test (Serniclaes, 1999)

Discrimination of rapid phonological transitions and rapid transitions for nonverbal sounds

RAN adapted (objects, letters, numbers, colors)

(Sprenger- Charolles, 1994)

Denomination speed

Rapid pseudoword repetition

(non words of 4 syllables)

(Sprenger- Charolles, 1994)

Articulation speed

Syllables counting (with and without recording )

(Kipffer, 1997)

Articulatory awareness

ECSII (Khomsi, 1990)

Verbal comprehension

Alouette (Lefavrais, 1967)

Reading level (word identification)

orthographic test

Orthographic representation assessment

non word reading

Nonword reading assessment

LMC (Khomsi, 1990)

Reading comprehension

 

Abstract:

No consensual answer has been found concerning the specificity of dyslexia deficits in research carried out over the last years.The hypothesis that dyslexia is mainly and specifically related to the phonological treatment of language will be investigated. Metaphonological and phonological difficulties in perception and production will be re-evaluated especially in the case of rapid temporal processing.

Verbal and nonverbal skills will be assessed separately in order to identify the nature of the deficits. Thus, we will assess phonological vs musical awareness, phonological vs visual (nonverbal) short-term memory, discrimination of rapid phonological transitions vs nonverbal sounds, articulatory-motor skills, articulatory speed, denomination speed.

Our core hypothesis proposed in the framework of the motor theory of speech perception adapted to reading is that developmental reading failures (dyslexia) are mainly due to subtle phonological deficits existing before the beginning of reading instruction.

The aim is to see in what measure the presence of these subtle phonological defects before the beginning of reading instruction affects the capacity of acquiring these reading skills.

In order to evaluate these hypotheses that 1) dyslexia is mainly due to linguistic deficits, specially phonological, 2) subtle phonological deficits existing before reading instruction have an incidence on learning to read, we will use experimental methods.

A group at risk (100 children) will be compared to a control group (100 children). These groups will be followed during 3 years from the last class of nursery school to second grade of primary school. The groups were matched according to children´s chronological age, pre-reading level, verbal and nonverbal IQs in the beginning of nursery school.

As our study is not finished yet, only a few results are available. We were able to isolate two groups (in the last year of nursery school class and 1rst grade) who differed significantly only in the verbal skills described earlier. At present, we are examining the correlations between phonological and metaphonological skills, nonverbal skills and reading skills.

Publications:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

France

Principal investigator(s):

Helgard Kremin

G. Dellatolas

Address: Hopital La Salpetrière

Laboratoire de pathologie du langage, INSERM-CRI 9609

Bat. Nouvelle Pharmacie-3ème etage

47 Bd de l'Hospital

F- 75651 Paris Cedex 13

FRANCE

E-mail-address of the contact-person: hkremin@infobiogen.fr

Title of study:

Predictive factors and cognitive correlatives of success in learning to read: a follow-up study of 78 French school children.

Key words:

reading acquisition

Beginning date of study (month, year): 1990

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 1994

Number of completed waves: 5

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 5

Time interval between waves (average): 6 mths.

Maximum sample size: 78

Size of core sample: 78

Age range at first data collection: 3 - 6 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? yes

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

object/action picture naming

 

word/non-word repetition

 

digit span, word span (familiar vs. unfamiliar)

 

articulation speed, rapid naming, rapid word reading

 

visual memory

 

Corsi span

 

semantic and phonological fluency

 

semantic and syntactic judgements (of sentences)

 

oral reading of words (regular vs. irregular)

 

oral reading of non-words

 

 

 

Abstract:

78 normally schooled French children aged initially 5 to 6 were assessed on five separate occasions during a 2-year follow-up period, the objective being to examine predictive factors and cognitive correlatives of success in learning to read. Vocabulary for objects and animals was the most predictive factor of reading success. Good short-term memory and verbal fluency were positive predictors of reading performance; on the opposite very high performance on a visual pattern recognition task was a negative predictor of nonword reading 6 months later. The strongest cognitive correlatives of reading performance for the first reading assessment were unfamiliar word span and repetition; for the second reading assessment a word guessing task implying phonological segmentation. These results are discussed in the frame of a modular information processing approach.

Publications:

Kremin, H. & Dellatolas, G. (1996). Les pre-requis cognitifs de l´apprentissage de la lecture. In S. Carbonnel, P. Gillet, M.D. Martory & S. Valdois: Approche cognitive des troubles de la lecture et de l´ecriture chez l´enfant et l´adulte. Solal, Marseille, pp. 97-112.

Kremin, H. & Dellatolas, G. Cognitive correlates and profiles of beginning readers: A follow-up study of 78 French school children (a Reading and Writing).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

France

Principal investigator(s):

Isabelle Nocus

Jean Emile Gombert

Address: LEAD/CNRS Universite de Bourgogne

6, Boulevard Gabriel

F-21000 Dijon

FRANCE

E-mail-address of the contact-person: gomb-e3@satie.u-bourgogne.fr

Title of study:

Syntactic awareness and comprehension reading.

Key words:

phonological awareness syntactic awareness morphological awareness recoding skills comprehension skills learning to read

Beginning date of study (month, year): 12-93

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 12-95

Number of completed waves: 6

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 6

Time interval between waves (average): 6 mths.

Maximum sample size: 74

Size of core sample: 47

Age range at first data collection: 4;8 - 5;11 yrs.

Data computerized? no

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

phoneme deletion

to measure phonological awareness

oddity rime/phoneme

to measure phonological awareness

grammatical judgement

to measure syntactic awareness

grammatical correction

to measure syntactic awareness

grammatical violation replication

to measure syntactic awareness

decoding, word recognition, text reading

to measure recoding skills

sentence comprehension

to measure reading comprehension

non-verbal IQ

to measure general capacity

memory span

to measure general capacity

vocabulary

to measure general capacity

 

 

Abstract:

This study aimed to complete the traditional research concerning the interactive link between phonological awareness and recognition of written words, by studying the relationship between syntactic and morpho-syntactic awareness and reading comprehension.

A longitudinal study was conducted from beginning of kindergarten to beginning of second grade. Forty-seven children were submitted metalinguistic tasks (phonological, syntactic and morphological tasks), reading task (decoding, word recognition, text reading and sentence comprehension), and general cognitive abilities tasks (non verbal IQ, memory span, vocabulary).

We used analysis of variance and fixed order and stepwise regressions with reading tasks as dependent variable and with metalinguistic and general cognitive ability tasks as predictors. The analysis of variance support the idea that, before learning to read, children already possess some phonological awareness capacities and certain skills which allow them to intentionally monitor the use of morphological and syntactic rules. Both these abilities were improved by learning to read and to spell. In particular, the regression analysis confirmed that there is indeed a link between phonological awareness and word recognition, between morphological awareness, word recognition and comprehension, and between syntactic awareness and comprehension in reading.

Thus, the data showed that a link does exist between syntactic awareness and learning to read. Syntactic awareness is involved in efficient calculation of sentence meaning and, thus, seems to play a role in articulating written word recognition and written sentence comprehension.

Publications:

Nocus, I. (1997, Decembre). Conscience metasyntaxique et apprentissage de la lecture. Thèse de Doctorat de Psychologie. Universite de Bourgogne.

Nocus, I., Gombert, J.E. (1997). Conscience morpho-syntaxique et apprentissage de la lecture. Revue de Psychologie de l'Education, 3, 71-101.

 

 

 

 

C

France

Principal investigator(s):

Laurence Pasa

Address: Universite Toulouse le Mirail

EURED-GREFI, Maison de la Recherche

Allee Machado

F-31058 Toulouse Cedex 1

FRANCE

E-mail-address of the contact-person: pasa@univ-tlse2.fr

Title of study:

Plurality of instructional setting and emergent literacy

Key words:

comparative longitudinal study acquisition of literacy instructional settings reading and spelling

Beginning date of study (month, year): 09-97

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 06-98

Number of completed waves: 7

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 7

Time interval between waves (average): 1,5 mths.

Maximum sample size: 26

Size of core sample: 22

Age range at first data collection: 5;8 - 6;5 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other: comparative study in two first grade classrooms

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

oral reading (recorded and transcripted)

to compare the reading strategies in the two classrooms

reading content recall

to compare the representation of the reading activity and the retelling of the story in the two classrooms

invented spelling of isolated words

to compare the writing procedures in the two classrooms

 

 

Abstract:

This study compares first-graders development of literacy in two different instructional settings. 22 subjects were divided into two equivalent groups. Both classrooms were located in urban areas nearly identical in terms of socio-economic status and ethnicity. The two teachers were similar in years of experience. One teacher used a traditional skill-based approach while the other one was identified as a whole language teacher using literature and writing experiences with incidental attention to phonics.

During the school year, documentation collection about the pedagogy included questionnaires, field notes of monthly observations of reading and writing lessons, systematic collections of the activities and samples of children's written work. Analyses of the linguistic structures contained in the manual used in the skill-based classroom and in the texts used in the whole language classroom were carried out. Data collection was conducted longitudinally (seven times a year) and involved three main tasks: invented spelling of words, oral reading and reading content recall.

ANOVA procedures applied to comparison of the two groups scores and strategies used in oral reading and spelling revealed that children in the whole language classroom perform better at the end of the school year than did the children in the skill-based classroom. Findings also showed that while children in the whole language classroom did not receive direct phonics instruction, they were able to use the graphophonic system for decoding and encoding as well as did children in the skill-based classroom. In the skill-based classroom, attention while reading was directed to the graphophonic cues, with little care of meaning as showed by the content meaning recall. In spelling, results indicated that in the whole language classroom, most errors were related to a lack of phonetic analyse, while children's mistakes in the skill-based classroom were linked with a one-to-one representation of the oral/written relationship. At the end of the school year, children in the whole language classroom mastered the phonetic analyse whereas the children's difficulties in the skill-based classroom persisted.

Publications:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

France

Principal investigator(s):

Serge Ragano

Address: Universite Toulouse - Le Mirail

EURED-CREFI, Maison de la Recherche

Allee Machado

31058 Toulouse

FRANCE

E-mail-address of the contact-person: ragano@univ.tlse2.fr

Title of study:

The effect of the context in the acquisition of literacy: An experimental longitudinal study.

Key words:

acquisition of literacy

Beginning date of study (month, year): 02-93

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 06-93

Number of completed waves: 3

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 3

Time interval between waves (average): 2 mths.

Maximum sample size: 40

Size of core sample: 37

Age range at first data collection: 5;8 - 6;5 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other: comparative effect of various linguistic contexts

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

oral reading of: isolated words, unknown sentences, known texts

compare context effect

 

 

Abstract:

This paper presents an experimental longitudinal study concerning the evolution of the effects of the context on beginning readers from the moment they start using phoneme-grapheme correspondences. The experiment consists in making first grade children read the same words three times a year. For each time there are three different situations with words in various contexts : the children must identify isolated words, read a group of unknown sentences and read text they already know. The results show that there are three stages in the acquisition : the children first use both types of cues (context and word cues), then focus on word cues only, finally, when their reading ability is fluent, they go back to both types of cues.

Publications:

RAGANO, S., (1996), L'entree dans l'ecrit : les strategies mises en oeuvre dans l'apprentissage, 3ème Biennale de l'Education et de la Formation, Paris, Avril.

RAGANO, S., (1999), Le rôle du contexte l'apprentissage de la lecture : etude experimentale longitudinale, Dossiers des Sciences de l'Education, 1, Toulouse, PUM

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

France

Principal investigator(s):

Alix Seigneuric

Marie France Ehrlich

Address: Universite de Bourgogne

LEAD - Faculte des Sciences

Boulevard Gabriel 6

21000 Dijon

FRANCE

E-mail-address of the contact-person: alix.seigneuric@u-bourgogne.fr

Title of study:

Working memory capacity and reading comprehension in children.

Key words:

reading comprehension working memory decoding and word recognition vocabulary

Beginning date of study (month, year): 04-95

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 04-97

Number of completed waves: 3

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 3

Time interval between waves (average): 1 yr.

Maximum sample size: 75

Size of core sample: 57

Age range at first data collection: 5;11 - 7;10 yrs.

Data computerized? no

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

Claire et Bruno Test (CPA)

reading comprehension in first grade

Sentence comprehension from D-OR-LECtest (ESF)

reading comprehension in first grade

Silent reading test (EAP)

reading comprehension in second and third grade

PMC-T (EAP)

non-verbal intelligence in first grade

VOCIM from Dague et Lege (CPA)

vocabulary in first grade

Vocabulary from images (Ed. Bernas)

vocabulary in second and third grade

MIM from Belec test non-word reading

phonological decoding in first, second and third grade

syllable and phoneme deletion from Belec test

phonological awareness in first and second grade

phoneme deletion test from Valdois (1993)

phonological awareness in third grade

Digit-span test from WISC-R

phonological memory in first, second and third grade

non-word repetition test from Moleux, Seigneuric & Ehrlich, 1998

phonological memory in first, second and third grade

working memory sentences from Seigneuric et al. (in press)

verbal working memory in first, second and third grade

working memory digits from Yuill et al. (1989) and Seigneuric et al. (in press)

numerical working memory in first grade

working memory lines from Seigneuric et al. (in press)

spatial working memory in first and second grade

 

 

Abstract:

The aim of this longitudinal study was to assess the relative influence of several variables to predict reading comprehension in first, second and third grades. Two groups of variables were included :

- specific variables related to word identification (decoding, phonological memory and phonological awareness)

- more general language variables (vocabulary and working memory capacity). Our main hypothesis was that initially, comprehension skill would be heavily dependent on word identification but that, later in development, word level influences would diminish, and comprehension would become more dependent on more general language factors such as vocabulary and working memory.

In first grade (7 years old), second grade (8 years old) and third grade (9 years old), 60 children completed the following tasks : a reading comprehension test ; a decoding task (reading nonwords) ; phonological memory and phonological awareness tasks ; a vocabulary test ; a working memory capacity task. This last task was a French adaptation of the listening span, adapted from the Daneman and Carpenter's reading span.

At each grade, the relative influence of all the variables in predicting reading comprehension was assess through the use of LISREL structural equation modelling. The results were as follows:

In the first grade, the best-fitting model described reading comprehension as being mostly determined by word level factors, such as phonological awareness and decoding.

In the second grade, the weight of word level factors remained important but vocabulary explained a significant part of variance.

In the third grade, word level factors was still diminishing, but remain significant whereas the more general language factors (vocabulary and working memory capacity) emerged as the most important predictors.

Our hypothesis was broadly supported in that the word level factors were the most critical at the beginning of reading acquisition while, as decoding becomes more automatic, the role of general language factors become more important to text integration.

Publications:

Seigneuric, A. (1997). Working memory capacity as one of the predictors of decoding and reading comprehension : A longitudinal study. VIIIth European Conference on Developmental Psychology, 3-7 September, Rennes, France.

Seigneuric, A. (1998). Memoire de travail et comprehension de l’ecrit chez l’enfant. Thèse de Doctorat, Universite Rene Descartes (Paris 5) et EPHE, Paris, France.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

France

Principal investigator(s):

Liliane Sprenger-Charolles

Philippe Lacert

Danielle Bechennec

Linda Siegel

Address: CNRS/UNR 8606 Univ. R. Mescauli

Dpt. De Linguistique

12 rue Cujas

F-75230 Paris Cedex 05

FRANCE

E-mail-address of the contact-person: sprenger@ccr.jussieu.fr

Title of study:

A 5 year longitudinal study of the development of phonological and orthographic processing in reading

Key words:

phonological processing orthographic processing phonological and visual short-term memory

Beginning date of study (month, year): 09-91

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 06-97

Number of completed waves: 8

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 8

Time interval between waves (average):

6 mths. (at the beginning of kindergarten - grade 1); 1yr. (between G1-G2-G3-G4-G5)

Maximum sample size: 60

Size of core sample: 43

Age range at first data collection: 5 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? yes

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other: experimental design

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

Sprenger-Charolles: Semantic categorization with visual and phonological foils (accuracy & time response)

assessment of the reliance on phonological processing

Sprenger-Charolles: Orthographic choice task (accuracy & time response)

efficiency of the orthographic lexicon

Sprenger-Charolles: regular and irregular word reading (accuracy & time latencies), idem spelling

efficiency of phonological and orthographic processing: effects of regularity, graphemic complexity, syllabic complexity, frequency, lexicality, analogy

Sprenger-Charolles: Analog - non analog pseudoword reading (accuracy & time latencies), idem spelling (accuracy only)

efficiency of phonological and orthographic processing: effects of regularity, graphemic complexity, syllabic complexity, frequency, lexicality, analogy

Sprenger-Charolles: pseudowords of different syllabic structure, reading accuracy & time latencies, spelling accuracy

efficiency of phonological and orthographic processing: effects of regularity, graphemic complexity, syllabic complexity, frequency, lexicality, analogy

Sprenger-Charolles: pseudoword rejection (4 series of 6 PW ranging from 3 to 6 syllables)

assessment of phonological STM

CORSI Block

assessment of visual STM

Raven Progressive Matrices (PM 47)

non verbal IQ

Deltour-Hypkens TVAP Vocabulary Test

level of vocabulary

Savigny Batelen standardized reading test

reading level

le favrais Alouette standardized reading test

reading level

Inizan ANALEC standardized reading test

reading level

 

 

Abstract:

This longitudinal study was designed to test the assumption that inadequate phonological skills are the basis of problems of reading acquisition and that phonological processing allows the establishment of the orthographic lexicon. Four hypotheses were tested. Hypothesis 1: Disabled readers will show an impairment in their early phonological skills; conversely, average and good readers will rely on efficient phonological skills early in the development of reading. Hypothesis 2: There will be an impairment of the orthographic lexicon of the disabled readers and good readers will have a more adequate orthographic lexicon. Hypothesis 3: The difference in orthographic, as opposed to phonological, skills will be more significant later in the acquisition of reading than at the early stages. Hypothesis 4: The orthographic impairment of disabled readers may be a result of the weakness of their early phonological skills, and not a consequence of inadequate visual skills. Forty-three children, diagnosed as either above average readers (AAR), or average readers (AR), or below average readers (BAR) at the end of the fifth grade were studied from first grade. The efficiency of phonological and orthographic skills were assessed with two silent reading tasks (semantic categorization and orthographic choice) as well as with three reading aloud and spelling tasks (one irregular word reading and spelling task and two pseudoword reading and spelling tasks). Visual-motor skills (VMI), visual short-term memory (Corsi task) and phonological short-term memory (pseudoword repetition task) were also assessed. The results confirmed the hypotheses. Early failure in phonological skills impedes the establishment of orthographic representations. In addition, early reliance on efficient phonological processing is a catalyst for the construction of the orthographic lexicon.

Publications:

Sprenger-Charolles, L. (1996). Mediation phonologique et acquisition de la lecture en français. Habilitation à diriger les recherches. Universite de Paris 7, UFR de linguistique (Vol. 1: 123p; Vol. 2: 14 articles)

Sprenger-Charolles, L. & Casalis, S. (1996). Lire. Lecture/ecriture: acquisition et troubles du developpement. Paris: PUF (Psychologie et sciences de la pensee).

Sprenger-Charolles, L., Bechennec, D. & Lacert, P. (1998). Place et rôle de la mediation phonologique dans l’acquisition de la lecture/ecriture. Revue Française de pedagogie, 122, 51-67.

Sprenger-Charolles, L., Siegel, L.S. & Bechennec, D. (1998). Phonological mediation and orthographic factors in silent reading. SSR (Scientific Study of Reading), 2, 3-29.

Sprenger-Charolles, L., Siegel, L. & Lacert, P. (submitted). A 5-year longitudinal study of the development of phonological and orthographic processing in reading: Comparisons between good, average and poor readers.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

France

Principal investigator(s): Lilian Sprenger-Charolles

Philippe Lacert

Pascale Cole

Willy Serniclaes

Danielle Bechennec

Address: CNRS/UNR 8606 Univ. R. Mescauli

Dpt. De Linguistique

12 rue Cujas

F-75230 Paris Cedex 05

FRANCE

E-mail-address of the contact-person: sprenger@ccr.jussieu.fr

Title of study:

Long-term follow-up of phonological and surface dyslexics.

Key words:

phonological dyslexia subtypes of dyslexia

Beginning date of study (month, year): 09-91

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 06-99

Number of completed waves: 6

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 7

Time interval between waves (average): 1 yr. (except in kindergarten)

Maximum sample size: 373 (kindergarten to grade 2)

Size of core sample: 33

Age range at first data collection: 5 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? yes

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other: experimental design

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

SC orthographic choice task (accuracy & time response)

efficiency of the orthographic lexicon

SC regular-irregular word reading (accuracy & time latencies) & spelling (accuracy)

Efficiency of phonological and orthographic processing in reading: effects of regularity, graphemic complexity, syllable complexity, frequency, lexicality, analogy

SC analog - nonanalog pseudowords reading (accuracy & time latencies) & spelling (accuracy)

Efficiency of phonological and orthographic processing in reading: effects of regularity, graphemic complexity, syllable complexity, frequency, lexicality, analogy

SC pseudowords (different syllabic structure) reading (accuracy & time latencies) & spelling (accuracy)

Efficiency of phonological and orthographic processing in reading: effects of regularity, graphemic complexity, syllable complexity, frequency, lexicality, analogy

SC pseudoword replication, 4 series of 6 PW (3-6 syllable)

phonological STM

Corsi block

visual STM

Raven

non-verbal IQ

Deltour-Hypkens TVAP Vocabulary Test

vocabulary level

Savigny Batelen standardized reading test

reading level

le favrais Alouette standardized reading test

reading level

Inizan ANALEC standardized reading test

reading level

TLCP

reading level

Autesserre et al. Phonemic discrimination

phonological awareness

SC phonemic & syllabic deletion

phonological awareness

SC onset-rhyme-cv test (judgement of similarity between 2 pw)

phonological awareness

Lacert melody and music

musical awareness

SC rapid pw rejection

articulatory speed

SC rapid automatic naming (adaptation)

actually not sure of what is really assessed by this task

Serniclaes & SC speech-nonspeech processing

phonemic vs. acoustic processing

SC & Cole detection of CV or CVC target syllables in CV or CVC words and pseudowords (Silent reading)

units of phonological processing in reading

 

 

 

Abstract:

Phonological dyslexia is characterized by a specific deficit in the phonological reading route and surface dyslexia by a specific deficit in the orthographic route. The first aim of this study is to evaluate whether these two subtypes are equally represented in developmental dyslexia and the second to examine whether they are linked with different underlying deficits.

A group of dyslexics (DYS, 33 children, 21 males and 12 females) was taken out of a longitudinal cohort of 373 children and a group of average readers (AR, 19 children, 11 males et 8 females) was taken out a sub-group of 60 children of the same cohort. These children were diagnosed as either DYS or AR at age 10 and 11. They were followed from kindergarten (age 5). To be enrolled in the studies, the children had to have French as native language, to be without language problems, motor problems and psychological difficulties, and to have average or above average cognitive functioning. In kindergarten, the children of the future DYS and NL groups were of the same chronological age, pre-reading level, verbal and non-verbal IQs. At age 10, the orthographic and phonological reading skills of the DYS were compared to those of the 19 AR of the same chronological age, as well as to those of the same group of children two years earlier (Reading level match: no difference was found between the 10 year-old DYS and the 8 year-old AR in their time latencies in a word reading task). The efficiency of the orthographic route was assessed using reaction times in an irregular word reading task and in an orthographic choice task. We relied on reaction times for pseudoword reading to assess the efficiency of the phonological route. According the method developed by Castles and Coltheart (1993), we found 16 P-DYS and 11 S-DYS when compared to the AR of the same chronological age. When compared to the younger children of the same reading level, 11 out the 16 P-DYS, but only 2 out of the 11 S-DYS, were still classified the such. These results replicated those of other studies (Manis et al., 1996; Stanovich et al., 1997; Genard et al., 1998).

To investigate whether these two subtypes are connected to different underlying deficits, the phonological and visual skills of the children were examined. Phonological and musical awareness were assessed when the children were 5, 7 and 8 year-olds. Phonological short-term memory (pseudoword repetition) and visual short-term memory (Corsi block) were assessed when the children were 8, 10 and 11 year-olds. Both P-DYS and S-DYS were found to have phonological awareness and phonological short-term memory deficits, but no early deficits in musical awareness, and no deficit in visual memory or in visuo-motor skills.

Publications:

Sprenger-Charolles, L., Cole P., Serniclaes, W. & Lacert, P. (submitted). Evidence for early specific phonological deficit in both phonological and surface dyslexia (Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, special issue).

Sprenger-Charolles, L., Lacert, Cole P. & Serniclaes, W. (1999). Deficits phonologiques et metaphonologiques chez des dyslexiques phonologiques et de surface. Reeducation orthophonique, mars 1999.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

France

Principal investigator(s): Lilian Sprenger-Charolles

Philippe Bonnet

Address: CNRS/UNR 8606 Univ. R. Mescauli

Dpt. De Linguistique

12 rue Cujas

F-75230 Paris Cedex 05

FRANCE

E-mail-address of the contact-person: sprenger@ccr.jussieu.fr

Title of study:

Logographic processing in beginning reading.

Key words:

logographic reading strategies phonological recoding skills pre-reading strategies

Beginning date of study (month, year): 11-91

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 05-93

Number of completed waves: 4

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 4

Time interval between waves (average): 6 mths.

Maximum sample size: 37

Size of core sample: 37

Age range at first data collection: 5 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? yes

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other: experimental design

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

SC word picture matching task

reliance on logographic strategies: use of word length, use of nonsequential processing, reliance on phonological cues

SC letter knowledge

 

Savigny Batelen standardized reading test

 

Raven Progressive Matrices

non-verbal IQ

Sensitivity to onset-rhyme-CV

phonological awareness

 

 

Abstract:

The objective of this longitudinal study was to evaluate reading strategies used by French children. A group of prereaders (N=37) was followed from the beginning of kindergarten to the end of the first grade. In kindergarten, they were non-readers. They were presented with a series of word to picture matching tasks twice in kindergarten and twice in first grade. The aim of the observation was to evaluate the utilisation of logographic strategies which are characterized by a large reliance on the global form of the word (its length, see study 1), by the non-sequentiality of processing (study 2) and by the use of salient visual -- and not phonological -- cues (study 3). In these three studies we took into account correct responses and justifications. Relations between metaphonological abilities, letter knowledge and prereading strategies were also assessed (studies 4 and 5). Our data showed that first graders did not use logographic strategies; their results were characterized by a great amount of correct responses with pertinent justifications, by the use of sequential processing and by sensitivity to phonic characteristics of items. For kindergarteners, we could not actually observe trace of logographic strategies besides the fact that they 'read' rather the environment (the picture) than the word itself as indicated by the importance of semantic justifications (for example, acceptation of 'bicyclette' justified by 'it is written velo'). Moreover, their performance did not improve between the two kindergarten sessions. Nevertheless, there was a change between these sessions in the use of letter justification. But these justifications were already prevalent as of the first session and were only produced by some children, those having better letter knowledge and better metaphonological levels. Results indicated that those children used prereading strategies that relied on partial alphabetic cues. Yet it seems difficult to assert that the other children would only relied on visual strategies since their performance was sensitive to the phonological properties of items. These results lead us to question the generality of some aspects of reading developmental models resulting from research bearing only on English-speaking subjects.

Publications:

Sprenger-Charolles, L. & Bonnet, P. (1996). New doubts on the importance of the logographic stage. Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitive/Current Psychology of Cognition, 15, 173-208

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I

France

Principal investigator(s):

Nicole Watteau

Catherine Demarey

Virginie Govaere

Address:

30 Avenue de la Plaine

74000 Annecy

FRANCE

E-mail-address of the contact-person: vardaf@cybercable.fr

Title of study:

Effects of rhythmical structures manipulation on phonological analysis capacities and reading in young children - suggestions for a new method.

Key words:

reading articulatory gestures deciphering

Beginning date of study (month, year): 10-94

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 11-95

Number of completed waves: 3

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 3

Time interval between waves (average): 6,5 mths.

Maximum sample size: 45

Size of core sample: 45

Age range at first data collection: mean age = 5 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: no

Intervention study: yes

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups: 2

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups: 1

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month): 6 months + 1,5 months (rehearsal training) + phases tests (total 2,5 mths.)

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month): 0,5 hrs./week

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

Manipulation of syllables: inversion, fusion, elision of initial, final or median unit from a pseudoword (post test)

awareness of units of syllables: evaluation

Analysis of mono- and bisyllabic pseudowords (post test)

spontaneous syllable segmentation in children

Discrimination and isolation of phonemes (post test)

awareness of intra-syllabic units: evaluation

test of visual recognition of written syllables and words

analysis of written syllables

tests of reading with a processing procedure, two conditions: (1) direct presentation (condition normal reading); (2) fragmentation presentation (display on the screen represents components of syllables and takes into account the respective durations of components which are gradually linked together; the durations were selected for their conformity with the data obtained with spectrographic analysis carried out before the experiment – adult vocal productions)

measurements of: performances, latency and pronounciation times

 

 

Abstract:

Our hypothesis concerns the bond between the articulatory code, the phonological code and analysis of written syllables. Metaphonological awareness is dependent upon the "coarticulation" phenomenon, and we suggest that rhythmic schema of the syllable can be reinforced by a specific training.

A longitudinal study lasting 6 months was undertaken with kindergarten children; mean age was five. Subjects were tested twice: at the end of the practice session and six months later during the next school year after a rehearsal of five weeks.

Three groups of 45 subjects were constituted:

- first experimental group: "Rhy pho". The subjects were trained with rhythmical exercises: discriminations and vocal repetitions of structures (each rhythmic structure was during 1,5 seconds) – repetitions of non-significant syllables in synchronization with associated rhythms – selection of parts of complex syllables after audition.

- Second experimental group: "Pho". The subjects received the phonological training (selection parts of complex syllables) without rhythmical exercises..

- Control group: without training.

The main results:

(1) just after the learning sessions the "Rhy Pho" group showed an overall superiority to the other groups. Specially, statistically significant differences were found for tests requiring spontaneous analysis of mono- and bisyllabic pseudowords

(Rhy Pho > Pho and Rhy Pho > control).

(2) Tests six months later:

- there were no outstanding differences between groups for tests of visual recognition of written syllables.

A fragmentation presentation of items (versus normal condition of reading) provided an advantage for all groups regarding latency and pronunciation times. In this presentation, intrasyllabic and syllabic components of pseudowords or words, with respective durations, are gradually linked together on the screen. These results as well as the significant negative correlations between latency and pronunciation times found for two experimental groups suggest the role of anticipation in vocal production and the importance of focusing studies on pedagogical methods in which duration of intrasyllabic components and motor organization become apparent to children.

The superiority of group "Rhy Pho" was not statistically significant, suggesting an insufficient amount of training sessions. Absence of differences between two conditions reading for "Rhy Pho" group (for "Pho" group: direct condition is significant more difficult) was interpreted as an effect of concatenation capacity in the deciphering task.

Publications:

Watteau, N., Demarey, C. & Govaere, V. (1997). Effects of rhythmical structures manipulation on phonological analysis capacities and reading in young children. Suggestions for a new teaching method. Eruopean Review of Applied Psychology, 47, 67-77.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I

France

Principal investigator(s):

Michel Zorman

Monique Jacquier-Roux

Sylviane Valdois

Pascal Bressoux

Address: IUFM Academie de Grenoble

Laboratoire Cogni-Sciences Apprentissages

30, avenue Marcellin Berthelot

F- 38100 Grenoble

FRANCE

E-mail-address of the contact-person: michel.zorman@ujf-grenoble.fr

Title of study:

Link between phonological skills during the last year of kindergarten and reading acquisition: effect of training phonological awareness on reading acquisition.

Key words:

phonological awareness metalinguistic training dyslexia reading acquisition spelling acquisition remedial intervention prevention

Beginning date of study (month, year): 11-95

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 05-98

Number of completed waves: 4

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 5

Time interval between waves (average): 1 yr.

Maximum sample size: 2265

Size of core sample: 2064

Age range at first data collection: 59 - 71 mths.

Data computerized? no

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: no

Intervention study: yes

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups: 1

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups: 1

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month): 8 weeks

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month): 1,5 hrs./week

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

word span (tests 1-7 are presented auditorily on a tape) (tests 1-11 pretest in the last year of kindergarten (december))

auditory short-term memory abilities

rhyme judgment (match two rhyming words among 4)

phonemic awareness

syllable counting

phonological awareness

syllable deletion (delete the initial, medial or final syllable in a 2- or 3-syllable word

phonological awareness

sound categorisal

phonemic awareness

name the initial phoneme of an auditory presented word

phonemic awareness

deletion of the first phoneme

 

vocabulary test (TVAP)

language level

reading abilities (Batelem)

reading level

non-verbal sound counting

counting abilities

non-word repetition (10 items)

language abilities

vocalic letter naming

(tests 12-15: post test in the last year of kindergarten (may))

reading abilities

consonantial letter naming

reading abilities

consonant sounding

reading abilities

1-syllable word and pseudo-word reading

reading abilities

sentence comprehension (Ecosse): 10 sentences (test in grade 1)

reading abilities

closure task (5 items): complete a sentence using the right word (multiple choice)

reading abilities

closure task (5 items): complete a sentence using the right word (multiple choice)

reading abilities

closure task

(tests 19-29: evaluation in second grade)

reading abilities

pseudo-word reading: delete the pseudo-word that doesn´t sound as the two others

reading abilities

Word spelling

Regularity effects in spelling

Pseudo-word spelling

Analytic processing in spelling

First phoneme deletion

Phonemic awareness

Initial phoneme identification

Phonemic awareness

Reading comprehension (Ecosse Test)

Reading level

Reading level estimation (Test de l´Alouette)

Reading level

Visual discrimination (comparison of two litteral sequences)

Visual abilities

Word reading

Frequency and regularity effects in reading

Pseudo-word reading

Analytic processing in reading

 

 

Abstract:

The purpose of this longitudinal study is twofold:

Our aim was first to establish on a large scale screening the existence of a link between the children phonological awareness abilities and their reading acquisition level. Phonological awareness abilities were assessed through a battery of metaphonological tasks when children were in the last year of kindergarten and a follow up on five years was scheduled in order to determine a) if early phonological abilities are predictive of future level in both reading and spelling and b) if phonological awareness abilities at each grade are correlated with skill level in written language processing.

Second, we aimed at determining whether training in phonological awareness during the last year of kindergarten improved children ability to learn to read (and spell).

The sample of this study was initially composed of 2265 children dispatched in 118 classes of the kindergarten's last year. They were recruited in five French territorial divisions of the " Academie of Grenoble " (Ardèche, Drôme, Isère, Savoie, Haute-Savoie). During the medical check up of the sixth year, the Health School Service assessed cognitive skills involved in learning to read (phonological awareness, working memory, vocabulary) and collected sociodemographic and clinical informations about the children and their families. Following, 512 children having the lowest level on the phonological awareness tasks were selected and benefited from a metaphonological training done in school by their usual teacher.

The children received 32 days of training over eight consecutive weeks. Each session lasted twenty minutes. They were trained to do many different tasks (using pictorial support): recognition and production of rhymes, syllable segmentation and deletion, phoneme counting, phoneme deletion, phoneme blending. Presently, children are in the third grade. They were assessed individually and collectively, in phonologic awareness, reading, spelling and comprehension at the end of the first and second years of the elementary school. A retest is scheduled for the end of fifth grade.

Some preliminary analyses have already been done. They show 1) a correlation at each grade between metaphonological abilities and reading skills 2) that trained children significantly improved their phonological awareness and that their improvement was superior to that of the other groups. Phonological awareness was also found to be related with the family cultural level.

Publications:

Zorman, M.(1999). Evaluation de la conscience phonologique et entraînement des capacites phonologiques en grande section de maternelle . Reeducation Orthophonique, n 197,pp 139-157.

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

Germany

Principal investigator(s):

Selma-Maria Behrndt

Martina Steffen

Heidemarie Hoffmann

Address: Beratungsstelle

Franz-Mehring-Strasse 47

17487 Greifswald

GERMANY

E-mail-address of the contact-person:

Title of study:

Preventive measures for functionally illiteracy for pupils with difficulties in reading and writing.

Key words:

Prevention of dyslexia dyslexia

Beginning date of study (month, year): 09-93

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 04-97

Number of completed waves: 12

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 12

Time interval between waves (average): 1 yr.

Maximum sample size: 27241 (1. pop.), 25452 (2. pop.), 23922 (3. Pop.)

Size of core sample: (1.) 17376 (2.) 23462 (3.) 22497

Age range at first data collection: 8;2 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other: preventive study

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

screenings for 2nd to 5th grade

 

 

 

Abstract:

The study investigated the efficiency of preventive measures for functionally illiteracy (by the different school promotion forms) for pupils with difficulties in reading and writing. Over a period of 5 years we conducted a series of quantitative and qualitative analysis of the spelling level, taking into account interindividual differences at three starting school years. All children beginning school in 1992/1993, 1993/1994 and 1994/1995 in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern were included in our sample.

We were interested in qualitative changes in the development of orthographic skills. The data analyses included representative samples. We considered the influence of factors such as type of school, size of class, qualifications of the teachers and methods of teaching and learning.

To gain information regarding a more efficient further education of the teachers in the area of dyslexia. The study shows that prevention at school is possible, if based on a different system, and the teachers receive a specific training. They must comprise the following subjects: counselling, diagnostics and promotion. Using these methods the orthographic skills can be increased. The study suggests that teachers should apply screening-tests from class two to five.

Publications:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I

Germany

Principal investigator(s):

Hans Bruegelmann

Thomas Franzkowiak

Address: Universitaet Siegen

FB 2

A.-Reichwein-Str. 2

57076 Siegen

GERMANY

E-mail-address of the contact-person: OASE@paedagogik.uni-siegen.de

Title of study:

BLISS - A conventionalized graphic symbol system bridging the gap between figurative drawing and traditional orthography

Key words:

emergent literacy BLISS symbols grapho-phonological learning phonological awareness reading and spelling learning disabilities prevention

Beginning date of study (month, year): 02-96

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 06-01

Number of completed waves: 1

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 3

Time interval between waves (average): 4 mths.

Maximum sample size: approx. 180

Size of core sample: not certain yet

Age range at first data collection: 5;4 - 6;4 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? yes

Type of study:

Correlation study: no

Intervention study: yes

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups: 9

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups: 3

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month): 15 weeks (=15 units)

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month): each unit lasts about 1 hour, additional activities possible at other times (material is available to the subjects if desired)

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

Testbatterie zur Phonologischen Bewusstheit (Schneider u.a., 1994): 3 Subtests

to examine several aspects of phonological awareness

Lese- und Schreibaufgaben fuer Schulanfaenger (Bruegelmann u.a., 1988): modified version

to examine the degree of experience of trad. Orthography

CFT 1

intelligence test

Self-developed tests (non-standardized)

to examine the knowledge of BLISS symbols and the ability to read and write symbol sentences

Wuerzburger Leise-Leseprobe (Kuespert & Schneider, 1998) (reduced word number)

to examine the decoding speed in reading

9-words-dictation (Richter 1991)

to examine the ability to spell words

Grundwortschatzdiktat (Richter 1992)

to examine the ability to spell words

(probably) parts of Knuspels Leseaufgaben (Marx, 1998)

reading comprehension

 

 

Abstract:

Many children fail in beginning reading and spelling instruction. Research over the last ten years has focused on phonological awareness as the main prerequisite for the acquisition of literacy. The role of experiences in traditional orthography and other graphic representational forms before school entry has been neglected.

Our project has been designed as a field study with three different types of intervention (introduction to Bliss as a logographic symbol system vs. introduction to alphabetic writing vs. phonological training without reference to alphabetic writing) plus control groups.

Subjects are children half a year before school entrance, preferably if they have limited experience of print and therefore are expected to spend an extra year at "Schulkindergarten" before they become first graders.

Our goal is to find out whether experience with graphic symbols can improve the chances for success in reading and writing instruction, moreover, whether children with limited experience of alphabetic writing benefit from a Bliss instruction prior to their school entrance.

An intensive study with two waves with three heterogeneous treatment groups in kindergarten and a third wave with the same treatments in groups of "children at risk" (each with process documentation) will be supplemented by an additional, broader study in regular settings. In this supplementary study only pre- and post-tests will be conducted; educators will receive all the materials they need in order to try out the different treatments.

The project has begun in March 1996 and will probably end in June 2001.

Publications:

Bruegelmann, H. (1990b): Ist BLISS eine Sprache? In: Bruegelmann, H./ Balhorn, H. (Hrsg.) (1990): Das Gehirn, sein Alfabet und andere Geschichten. DGLS-Jahrbuch "Lesen und Schreiben", Bd.4. Ekkehard Faude: Konstanz.

Bruegelmann, H. (1995) : BLISS – globales Kommunikationsmittel und zugleich Anfangsschrift fuer Kinder ? In : Spektrum der Wissenschaft, September 1995, 119-121.

Bruegelmann, H. / Franzkowiak, T. (1996) : BLISS und Schriftspracherwerb. Eine Bruecke vom Bild zur Schrift. Bericht No. 21, Projekt OASE, FB 2 der Universitaet Siegen. (aktualisierter Bericht No. 21 a : Januar 1999)

Bruegelmann, H. / Franzkowiak, T. (1998) : BLISS als Bruecke zwischen kindlichem Malen und alfabetischer Schrift. In : Gogolin, I. u.a. (1998) : UEber Mehrsprachigkeit. Stauffenburg Verlag, Tuebingen, 309-335.

Franzkowiak, T. (1994): Verstaendigung mit grafischen Symbolen. In: Braun, U. (Hrsg.) (1994): Unterstuetzte Kommunikation. Kinder mit cerebralen Bewegungsstoerungen. Verlag Selbstbestimmtes Leben: Duesseldorf.

Franzkowiak, T. (1996a): BLISS im Kindergarten – eine Begriffsschrift als Bruecke vom kindlichen Zeichnen zum alfabetischen Schreiben. Bericht No. 9, Projekt OASE. FB 2 der Universitaet- Gesamthochschule: Siegen.

Franzkowiak, T. (1996b): BLISS-Symbole im Primarbereich. In: FLOH's Ideenkiste (Domino-Verlag: Muenchen), H. 10/1996,38-41.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I

Germany

Principal investigator(s):

W. Einsiedler

Paul Helbig

Eva-Maria Kirschhock

Sabine Martschinke

Gerhard Treinies

Address: University of Erlangen-Nuremberg

Regensburgerstr. 160

90478 Nuernberg

GERMANY

E-mail-address of the contact-person: wolfgang.einsiedler@ewf.uni-erlangen.de

Title of study:

The development of phonological awareness and reading/spelling in grade 1/2 dependent on different teaching methods.

Key words:

phonological awareness training of phoneme-grapheme-correspondence language abilities reading and spelling

Beginning date of study (month, year): 09-97

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 07-99

Number of completed waves: 5

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 5

Time interval between waves (average): 6 mths.

Maximum sample size: 360

Size of core sample: 350

Age range at first data collection: 6 - 7 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: no

Intervention study: yes

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups: 2

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups: 1

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month): 3 mths.

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month): 3 hrs./week

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

Nuremberg Test of Phonological Awareness

a) pretest, start of first class; b) posttest, 6 mths. later (after training)

Wurzburg Reading Test

posttest reading, reading skills

Reading and Understanding 7 First Grade

posttest reading, reading understanding

Hamburg Writing Test First Grade

posttest spelling

Reading and Understanding 8 Second Grade

posttest reading, reading understanding

Hamburg Writing Test Second Grade

posttest spelling

German Reading Test Second Grade

 

German Diagnostic Spelling Test Second Grade

 

 

 

Abstract:

Most training studies on phonological awareness are carried out within pre-school education. In fact, a lot of pupils start reading and writing in school with deficiencies in phonological awareness. Therefore one aim of the study was to examine the effectiveness of a training in phonological awareness in October/November/December in grade 1 when the pupils are reaching the critical point of phonetic recoding. A further aim was to observe the development of phonological awareness in classes which learn reading and writing according the "language experience approach" (learning reading by writing of self-produced words and sentences, without primer); we postulated that processes of self-discovering the alphabetic principle would promote phonological awareness. Our sample consisted of 5 classes with a normal course of reading (including a primer) with training in phonological awareness, of 5 classes "language experience approach" and of 5 control classes. The training of phonological awareness followed the Lundberg-training, but emphasized for several weeks the learning of the phoneme-grapheme-correspondence in a stronger way. Low-ability pupils learned the correspondence by a special metacognitive oriented strategy. In the post-test of phonological awareness the training classes outperformed the "language experience" classes. In four subtests on reading and spelling in grade 1 and grade 2 the training classes were better than "language experience" classes, but not better than control classes. Phonological awareness training in grade 1 proved to be useful; the "language experience approach" should be combined with sequences of systematic teaching the alphabetic system.

Publications:

Treinies, G., Martschinke, S., Kirschhock, E.-M. & Frank, A. (1999). Die Entwicklung und Evaluation eines Erhebungsverfahrens zur phonologischen Bewusstheit im ersten Schuljahr (Development and evaluation of a test on phonological awareness in grade 1). Technical Report No. 91. University of Erlangen-Nuremberg: Institute for Research in Primary Education.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

Germany

Principal investigator(s):

G. Esser

M.H. Schmidt

Address: Universitaet Potsdam

Institut fuer Psychologie der Uni. Potsdam

Postfach 60 15 53

14415 Potsdam

GERMANY

E-mail-address of the contact-person: gesser@rz.uni-potsdam.de

Title of study:

Children with specific reading retardation - early determinants and long-term outcome

Key words:

specific developmental disorder learning disabilities psychiatric disorders

Beginning date of study (month, year): 03-78

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 12-95

Number of completed waves: 4

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 4

Time interval between waves (average): 5-7 yrs.

Maximum sample size: 399

Size of core sample: 321

Age range at first data collection: 8;0 - 8;9 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other: Prospective epdemiological longitudinal study

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

CFT 1

Non-verbal general intelligence

Sound blending from the Psycholinguistischer Entwicklungstest (German version of Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities)

Speech perception

VHB (Behavior observation)

Articulation

Zuericher Lesetest (Zurich Reading Test)

Reading performance

RST 1

Spelling performance

DRT 2

Spelling performance

WRT 4-5

Spelling performance

Koerperkoordinationstest fuer Kinder

Motor coordination

Goettinger Formreprodutionstest (Goettinger Shape Reproduction)

Visual motor coordination

Subtest 3,4,7-10 of the Pruefsystem fuer Schul- und Bildungsberatung

Non-verbal general intelligence

Optimal score in accordance with Littman and Parmelee

Pre- and perinatal risks

Familiy Adversity Index by Rutter and Quinton

Adverse familial conditions

 

 

Abstract:

In a prospective epidemiological longitudinal study of children (n = 399) from age 8 to 18 years, children with specific reading retardation (n = 37) were identified by the modified Research Diagnostic Criteria of ICD-10. The group with specific reading retardation (SRR) was compared with a group with other specific developmental disorders (n = 62), a group of children with normal intelligence (n = 285) and a group of children with below average intelligence (n = 15).

No correlation was found between reading retardation and pre- and perinatal complications. Children with reading retardation suffered from environment-related stress factors in early childhood and adverse familial conditions at 8 years and the educational level of the mother was significantly lower. The number of additional psychiatric symptoms increased at ages 8, 13, and 18. Conduct disorder, in particular, were more frequent in children with specific reading retardation and the rate of juvenile delinquency increased (25%). Non-verbal intelligence remained constant between ages 8 and 13, and spelling performance developed parallel to the control group with normal intelligence. Only one out of three showed a significant improvement in spelling ability. At the age of 25 years no longer higher rates of psychiatric disorders could be observed among the groups with formerly specific reading retardation. One out of four from the SRR group compared with 4% of the control group was unemployed at the age of 25 years.

Publications:

Esser, G. (1991). Was wird aus Kindern mit Teilleistungsschwaechen - Der langfristige Verlauf umschriebener Entwicklungsstoerungen. Stuttgart: Enke.

Esser, G. & Schmidt, M.H. (1993). Die langfristige Entwicklung von Kindern mit Lese-Rechtschreibschwaeche. Zeitschrift fuer Klinische Psychologie, 22, 100-116.

Esser, G. & Schmidt, M.H. (1994). Children with specific reading retardation - early determinants and long term outcome. Acta paedopsychiatrica, 56, 229-237.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

Germany

Principal investigator(s):

Petra Hanke

Address: Universitaet Koeln

Lehrstuhl fuer Grundschulpaedagogik und didaktik

Gronewaldstr. 2

50931 Koeln

GERMANY

E-mail-address of the contact-person: hanke.knop@t-online.de

Title of study:

Teaching conditions and their effects on the process of development of reading and spelling skills for children in the four years of primary school in Germany.

Key words:

reading and spelling teaching variables development of reading and spelling skills open education situated learning

Beginning date of study (month, year): 05-94

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 06-98

Number of completed waves: 9

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 11

Time interval between waves (average): 6 mths.

Maximum sample size: 1600 pupils (=78 classes in primary school)

Size of core sample: approx. 1250

Age range at first data collection: 6 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

Questionnaires for the teachers for the first classes (05/94 and 05/95)

ascertains the teachers´ professional knowledge and experience, their teaching practices, their implicit theories of teaching of reading

CFT 1 - Test to the prior experiences of reading, writing and spelling (Breuer/Weuffen, Bruegelmann)

diagnose the prior experiences of reading, writing and spelling

Lernbeobachtung Schreiben - Klasse 1 (M. Dehn)

diagnose the spelling skills

Lernbeobachtung Lesen - Klasse 1 (M. Dehn)

diagnose the reading skills

Hamburger Schreibproben 1, 2, 3 and 4 (P. May)

diagnose the spelling skills

Hamburger Leseproben fuer Klasse 2-4 (Steinbach & May)

diagnose the reading skills

creative writing

diagnose the spelling skills in the pupils´ own words

observations to the teaching conditions

ascertain characteristics of the teachers´ implicit theories of teaching reading and spelling

observations to the pupils´ reading behaviour

ascertain the reading behaviour

evaluation of social statistics

ascertain the pupils´ social status

 

 

Abstract:

The central aim of this research is to show the specific effects of various forms of teaching of reading, writing and spelling (dependent on closed, opened and mixed approaches to classroom teaching; the treatment as an independent variable) on the process of developing reading, writing and spelling skills (a dependent variable) for children in primary schools in general as well as for pupils with special needs in the learning process.

On the basis of this aim the author researches the ways in which the various didactic conceptions of teaching to read and write differ with regard to their effects on the process of developing reading and writing skills for children in general and for children with special needs in the learning process. A substantial precondition for the analysis of these effects is a detailed reconstruction of the concrete form taken by the various broader theoretical approaches to the teaching of reading, writing and spelling skills in primary-school teaching-practices.

The research project is a longitudinal study over a period of two years (for a subsample it will be four years (1994-1998)). It is based on a sample of 78 classes in primary schools in the Cologne region with about 1600 children altogether. The samples were chosen on the basis of the results of questionnaires for teachers regarding their approaches to the teaching to reading, writing and spelling.

The process of developing reading and spelling skills was analysed by using reading and spelling tests. The identification and control of the development of the teaching approaches in the four years of primary school was based in particular on an observation method using a didactical indicator model developed by the researcher and carried out at four and six measurement points respectively.

The comprehensive empirical data base is currently being analysed using descriptive and inference statistical procedures.

 

 

 

Publications:

Hanke, P. (1997). Schriftspracherwerbsprozesse von Kindern nach verschiedenen didaktisch-methodischen Ansaetzen des Anfangsunterrichtes. E. Glumpler & S. Luchtenberg (Hrsg.). Jahrbuch Grundschulforschung, Band 1. Tagungsdokumentation der Fachtagung Grundschulforschung 1996 in Dortmund. Weinheim, 233-250.

Hanke, P. (1998). Projekt Schrift-Spracherwerb. Bericht Nr. 4. Universitaet zu Koeln.

Hanke, P. (1998). Offener Anfangsunterricht im Spiegel von Theorie und Praxis. Ansprueche und Realitaeten. H. Bruegelmann, M. Foelling-Albers & S. Richter (Hrsg.). Jahrbuch Grundschule 1998. Fragen der Praxis - Befunde der Forschung. Seelze, 72-78.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I

Germany

Principal investigator(s):

Wilfried Hingst

Address:

Schulpsychologische Beratung

Im Werder 11

D- 29221 Celle

GERMANY

E-mail-address of the contact-person:

Title of study:

Prevention program of reading and spelling weakness in the first and second grade of primary school.

Key words:

reading and spelling dyslexia school achievement migrant pupils

Beginning date of study (month, year): 08-88

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 02-92

Number of completed waves: 9

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 9

Time interval between waves (average): 4-6 mths.

Maximum sample size: 367

Size of core sample: 233

Age range at first data collection: 6 - 7 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: no

Intervention study: yes

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups: 1

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups: 1

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month): 24 mths.

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month): 2 hrs./week

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

Lautunterscheidungstest fuer Vorschulkinder von Fried, 1980

acoustic discrimination

aus Graphomotorische Testbatterie von Rudolf, 1978

Grapho-motor coordination

adaptiert aus Pruefung optischer Differenzierungsleistung von Sauter, 1979

ability for visual discrimination

aus Hannover-Wechsler-Intelligenztests fuer das Vorschulalter von Eggert, 1975

vocabulary

Lautbildungstests fuer Vorschulkinder von Fried, 1980

articulation

subjective rating by logopaedics

speech disorders

adapted to the test "sound-linking" of the psycho-linguistical test of development by Angermaier, 77

acoustic synthesis

invented in reference to the test "reading phonetically" by Blumenstock, 1979

acoustic analysis

self-invented proposal

reading block letters

self-invented dictation of all teached letters

write block letters or else cript types

Diagnostischer Lesetest zur Fruehdiagnose von Lesestoerungen von Mueller, 1984

reading at the end of the first grade: a) read vocabulary b) ability for visual synthesis c) reading speed

dictation of all taught letters

(test instruments 13-18 are completely self-constructed because no normed instruments were available)

write script letters

dictation of 20 words which sound like they are spelled

orthographic knowledge (spelling skills) in the midst of second grade

12 stories presented: the pupils had to encode them and answer to 2 questions with 5 alternative possibilities to answer each

reading comprehension at the end of second grade

dictation of 30 test-words:

  1. taught words, which are not spelled like they sound
  2. knowledge of differentiation between small and capital letters
  3. total number of errors

orthographic knowledge (spelling skills) at the end of second grade

Dictation of 78 words

orthographic knowledge (spelling skills) at the end of third grade

dictation of 93 words

orthographic knowledge (spelling skills) in the midst of fourth grade

 

 

Abstract:

To reduce the number of pupils with reading and spelling weaknesses a prevention program was developed, beginning in primary school. It was tested for several years with 367 children. Among them there were also migrant pupils of primary school.

These passed a prevention program lasting two years and were also tested in the following two school years. The intervention focused on basic abilities, such as phoneme awareness. Further, there was also an orthographic training and a training on basic words for children with spelling problems.

The results show, that this program is useful at primary school and yields clearly better reading and orthographic performance than the traditional approach The effects are also stable over the following years.

Publications:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

Germany

Principal investigator(s): Wilfried Hingst

Address:

Schulpsychologische Beratung

Im Werder 11

D- Celle

GERMANY

E-mail-address of the contact-person:

Title of study:

Effects of the special instruction in German on the development of spelling in primary school.

Key words:

dyslexia reading and spelling

Beginning date of study (month, year): 08-96

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 07-97

Number of completed waves: 5

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 5

Time interval between waves (average): 3 mths.

Maximum sample size: 791

Size of core sample: 710

Age range at first data collection: 10 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other: field study

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

self-invented dictation: beginning of the fourth grade

Spelling skills

self-invented dictation: end of the fourth grade

Spelling skills

 

 

Abstract:

In a study with 791 children of the fourth grade of primary schools, special instruction in German was examined and ist effectiveness was evaluated. The aim of the study was to gain knowledge about the effectiveness and the organisational realisation of the regulary special instruction in German in primary schools.

As a main result it was found that progress in learning of the children which had been supported could not be explained by the special instruction they had received. Also, organizational elements of the German special instruction and teacher variables did not show positive effects.

Publications:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

Germany

Principal investigator(s):

Harald Jansen

Helmut Skowronek

Address: Universitaet Bielefeld

Fakultaet fuer Psychologie und Sportwissenschaft

Postfach 10 01 31

D- 33501 Bielefeld

GERMANY

E-mail-address of the contact-person: h.jansen@post.uni-bielefeid.de

Title of study:

Prediction of reading and spelling difficulties in Grade 9.

Key words:

reading and spelling children at risk for dyslexia dyslexia self-concept

Beginning date of study (month, year): 01-86

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 06-96

Number of completed waves: 10

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 10

Time interval between waves (average): 5 yrs. between wave 9 & 10

Maximum sample size: 1193 (wave 10)

Size of core sample: 111

Age range at first data collection: 5;0 - 6;6 yrs..

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

word-decision-task

assessing word reading speed

endsound-deletion-reading-task

assessing word reading manipulation skills

identification of same word soundings (adapted from Marx 1998, Knuspels Leseaufgaben)

assessing recoding ability

identification of same word meanings (adapted from Marx 1998, Knuspels Leseaufgaben)

assessing decoding ability

test-reading-tasks

assessing reading comprehension

spelling test

assessing spelling ability

questionnaire school and learning

assessing school and learning related self-concept variables

questionnaire reading and spelling

assessing reading and spelling relation specific self-concept variables

maths-test

assessing mathematical competence

 

 

Abstract:

The longitudinal study started in 1986 at the kindergarten level (see Marx, Jansen, Mannhaupt & Skowronek, 1993). This follow-up study (wave 10) was completed in 1996.

Aims of the study were: (1) to describe and specify the development of at risk-children; (2) to investigate the long-term effects of early reading and spelling disabilities on later reading and spelling ability and (3) to measure the relationship to self-concept variables.

The time interval between wave 9 and wave 10 was five years. N = 111 children from the original longitudinal sample (N = 240) participated in the last wave.

A representative sample of N = 506 children was created (stratified randomly assigned from N = 1080 children) to evaluate the representativity of the longitudinal sample. No differences were observed between the longitudinal and the representative sample in all achievement tasks (except for one word reading task).

High correlations were found between Bielefeld Screening (pre-school) and a reading/spelling score in grade 9 (r = .67). The correlation between reading/spelling scores in grades 2 and 9 was r = .85. Individual predictions were of moderate quality.

Reading and spelling achievement in grade 9 correlated significantly with self-concept scales which focus on specific reading and spelling situations. Self-concept scales with lower specificity (classroom, school, home and peer related scales) correlated at a lower level with achievement tasks.

The results showed that (1) pre-school variables (phonological awareness, memory variables) predict later reading and spelling ability in grade nine, (2) at risk-children have problems to compensate their deficits in a time interval of 10 years and (3) low achievement in reading and spelling over a long time is often accompanied with a specific negative self concept.

Publications:

Jansen, H.; Mannhaupt, G.; Marx, H. & Skowronek, H. (1999). Bielefelder Screening zur Frueherkennung von Lese-Rechtschreibschwierigkeiten (BISC). Goettingen: Hogrefe.

Jansen, H. & Skowronek, H. (1997). Lese-Rechtschreibschwaeche und funktionaler Analphabetismus in der Sekundarstufe I. Untersuchung ueber Entwicklung und Entstehungsbedingungen von Lese-Rechtschreibschwierigkeiten von Kindern im neunten Unterrichtsjahr. Universitaet Bielefeld: Unveroeffentlichter Forschungsbericht.

Marx, H., Jansen, H., Mannhaupt, G. & Skowronek, H. (1993). Prediction of difficulties in reading and spelling on the basis of the Bielefeld Screening. In H. Grimm & H. Skowronek (Eds.), Language acquisition problems and reading disorders: Aspects of diagnosis and intervention (pp. 219-241). New York: De Gruyter.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

Germany

Principal investigator(s):

Gerheid Scheerer-Neumann

Address: Unviersitaet Potsdam

Institut fuer Grundschulpaedagogik

Postfach 60 15 53

14415 Potsdam

GERMANY

E-mail-address of the contact-person: scheerer@rz.uni-potsdam.de

Title of study:

A longitudinal study of spelling and writing competence in age-mixed classes

Key words:

composition-writing spelling age-mixed classes East-West-comparison

Beginning date of study (month, year): 08-97

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 01-99

Number of completed waves: 4

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 8

Time interval between waves (average): 6 mths.

Maximum sample size: 94

Size of core sample: about 70

Age range at first data collection: 1st 2nd 3rd classes (7,8,9 years of age)

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other: qualitative analysis of spelling errors; linguistic analysis of competitions

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

"Funny sentences (Bruegelmann)

testing spelling achievement

(Grade 2- 4)

Diagnostische Bilderliste (Dummer)

testing spelling achievement (Grade 1)

Hamburger Schreibprobe 4/5

testing spelling achievement (Grade 5)

Self - developed instrument testing reading speed

testing speed of reading

 

 

Abstract:

1. Following a severe drop in birth rate, the German Federal State of Brandenburg (formerly in the German Democratic Republic) has initiated a project in which schools are allowed to instruct children in age-mixed classes. These classes differ from the more traditional school settings not only in their homogeneity, but are also rather "open" in their instructional style.

2. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the quality of writing and spelling development in such a school setting and compare it to the development in more traditional schools. The study is carried out in a cross-sectional and longitudinal design: Three age-groups (grades 1-3) varying between 74 and 94 children were first tested in August 1997 and followed in 6-months intervals with the latest testing taking place in January 1999. In January 1998 an additional sample of 60 first graders was included.

3. The test instruments include two spelling tests (Diagnostische Bilderliste, Hamburger Schreibprobe 4-5), further writing to dictation and composition with rather broad thematic requirements. The latter two tasks have been used in previous research, but are not standardized (Bruegelmanns "Raetselsaetze", taken from his East-West comparison, Bruegelmann 1994). They allow the assessment of intraindividual development and a comparison with the data from the cited study by Bruegelmann. These data are of particular interest, since they include results from children who had been raised in the former German Democratic Republic (GDR), from children raised in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and from Swiss children taught in an open classroom. Recent comparison data collected south of Bremen are also available.

4. Results:

In the spelling task (sentences) the children taught in the age-mixed classes were almost comparable to the Bruegelmann 1994 sample from the FRG and Switzerland, but made more errors than the sample from the GDR. Their achievement was almost identical with the Richter-data.

In the compositions spelling was comparable to the Bruegelmann samples (with the exception of grade 3) which did not show a difference between school systems.

The same was true for length of composition (number of words)

A more detailed linguistic analysis of the compositions is being worked at, but not yet completed.

Children´s progress was adequate, i.e. the longitudinal data are comparable to the cross-sectional data from the Bruegelmann study with the mentioned exceptions.

Publications:

Scheerer-Neumann, G. (1998). Die Entwicklung der Schreibkompetenz in altersgemischten Klassen an "Kleinen Grundschulen" Brandenburgs. In: E. Waldmann, B. Schulz & D. Sommer, Entwicklung und Erprobung der Qualitaetssicherung Kleiner Grundschulen in Brandenburg. Abschlussbericht des BLK-Versuchs. Paedagogisches Landesinstitut Brandenburg. Band 2, Teil 6, S. 1-19.

 

 

 

 

 

I

Germany

Principal investigator(s):

Wolfgang Schneider

Petra Kuespert

Mechtild Visé

Address: University of Wuerzburg

Department of Psychology

Roentgenring 10

D-97070 Wuerzburg

GERMANY

E-mail-address of the contact-person: schneider@psychologie.uni-wuerzburg.de

Title of study:

Impact of phonological awareness training on the acquisition of literacy

Key words:

phonological training metalinguistic training long-term effects of training quality of instruction

Beginning date of study (month, year): 09-91

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 07-95

Number of completed waves: 6

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 6

Time interval between waves (average): 5 mths.

Maximum sample size: 371

Size of core sample: 345

Age range at first data collection: 5;11 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? yes

Type of study:

Correlation study: no

Intervention study: yes

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups: 1

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups: 1

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month): 7 mths.

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month): 1 hr./week

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

Phonological awareness test

(self-constructed; given before and after training)

Assessment of phonological awareness in the narrow and broad sense (phoneme awareness, rhyming skills)

Word span

Assessment of short-term memory capacity

Rapid naming of coloured and uncoloured objects

Speed in accessing the semantic lexicon

Letter knowledge

Early literacy

Columbia Mental Maturity Scale

Non-verbal intelligence

Reading of pseudo-words (end of kindergarten)

Early literacy

Metalinguistic transfer test (beginning of Grade 1)

Maintenance of phonological awareness effects

Knuspels Leseaufgaben (Marx, 1992)

(end of Grade 1 and end of Grade 2)

Decoding skill and reading comprehension

Spelling test (adopted from LOGIC study; see Schneider & Naeslund, 1993)

(end of Grade 1)

Spelling skills

Diagnostischer Rechtschreibtest fuer 2. Klassen (Mueller, 1966)

(spelling test for Grade 2)

Spelling skills

Wuerzburger Leise Leseprobe (Kuespert & Schneider, 1998)

(end of Grade 3

Reading speed

Diagnostischer Rechtschreibtest fuer 3. Klassen

(end of Grade 3

Spelling skills

 

 

Abstract:

The major goal of the study was to replicate Ingvar Lundberg's classic training study (Lundberg, Frost, & Petersen, 1988) for a different orthography and slightly younger children. Children were recruited immediately after the beginning of their last year in kindergarten. A phonological awareness test was given before and after the training period. The training group (N=205) participated in a metalinguistic program that lasted for about 7 months (15 minutes per day). The control group (N=166) did not receive any training but participated in the regular kindergarten program. A meta-linguistic transfer test was given at the beginning of first grade. Assessments of reading and spelling followed at the end of Grades 1 through 3. Although short-term effects of the training program were found, long-term effects up to the end of Grade 2 were only confirmed for those children who were trained consistently. Thus the quality of training and the engagement of kindergarten teachers were found to be influential variables.

Publications:

Schneider, W., Vise, M., Reimers, P. & Blaesser, B. (1994). Auswirkungen eines Trainings der sprachlichen Bewusstheit auf den Schriftspracherwerb in der Schule [Effects of a phonological awareness training on the acquisition of literacy in school]. Zeitschrift fuer Paedagogische Psychologie, 8, 177-188.

Schneider, W., Kuespert, P., Roth, E., Vise, M & Marx, H. (1997). Short- and long-term effects of training phonological awareness in kindergarten: Evidence from two German studies. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 66, 311-340.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I

Germany

Principal investigator(s): Wolfgang Schneider

Petra Kuespert

Ellen Roth

Address: University of Wuerzburg

Department of Psychology

Roentgenring 10

D-97070 Wuerzburg

GERMANY

E-mail-address of the contact-person: schneider@psychologie.uni-wuerzburg.de

Title of study:

Training phonological awareness in kindergarten: Evaluation of a revised intervention approach

Key words:

phonological training assessment of long-term effects

Beginning date of study (month, year): 12-93

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 06-97

Number of completed waves: 6

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 6

Time interval between waves (average): 6 mths.

Maximum sample size: 345

Size of core sample: 267

Age range at first data collection: 5;7 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? yes

Type of study:

Correlation study: no

Intervention study: yes

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups: 1

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups: 1

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month): 6 mths.

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month): 1 hr./week

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

Hannover Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Pre-school Children (Subtest: Vocabulary)

Assessment of verbal IQ

Articulation speed measure (self-constructed)

Assessment of verbal processing speed

Phonological awareness measure (at pre- and posttest)

Assessment of phonological awareness

Word span task

Assessment of verbal memory capacity

Rapid naming task

Assessment of verbal information processing speed

Metalinguistic transfer test

Assessment of phonological awareness in Grade 1

Knuspels Reading Test

(Grade 1)

Reading comprehension

Wuerzburger Silent Reading Task

(Grades 1 and 2

Reading speed

Hamburger Schreibprobe fuer 1. Klassen

(Grade 1)

Spelling

Diagnostischer Rechtschreibtest DRT 2

(Grade 2)

Spelling

 

 

Abstract:

This study presents a replication and extension of the training study by Schneider, Vise, Reimers, & Blaesser (1994). The phonological training program was improved and shortened, and the kindergarten teachers were also more intensely supervised and advised than in the first training study. The 6-month metalinguistic training was given to 191 kindergarten children. Another 155 kindergarten children served as control group. The replication was more successful than the first training study, yielding remarkable short-term- and long-term effects of the phonological training. The intervention not only improved phonological awareness but also affected reading and spelling skills. Training effects were maintained until the end of second grade. Thus this study not only replicated the findings from Lundberg et al.'s Scandinavian training study but also extended findings from Anglo-American and Scandinavian populations to German children.

Publications:

Schneider, W., Kuespert, P., Roth, E., Vise, M & Marx, H. (1997). Short- and long-term effects of training phonological awareness in kindergarten: Evidence from two German studies. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 66, 311-340.

Kuespert, P. (1998). Phonologische Bewusstheit und Schriftspracherwerb [Phonological awareness and the aquisition of literacy]. Frankfurt a.M.: Lang.

Schneider, W., Ennemoser, M., Roth, E., & Kuespert, P. (in press). Kindergarten prevention of dyslexia: Does training in phonological awareness work for everybody? Journal of Learning Disabilities.

 

 

I

Germany

Principal investigator(s): Wolfgang Schneider

Ellen Roth

Marco Ennemoser

Address: University of Wuerzburg

Department of Psychology

Roentgenring 10

D-97070 Wuerzburg

GERMANY

E-mail-address of the contact-person: schneider@psychologie.uni-wuerzburg.de

Title of study:

Training phonological skills and letter knowledge in kindergarten children at risk for dyslexia

Key words:

children at risk for dyslexia phonological training letter-sound training long-term effects of training

Beginning date of study (month, year): 10-95

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 07-99

Number of completed waves: 6

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 6

Time interval between waves (average): 6 mths.

Maximum sample size: 354

Size of core sample: 250

Age range at first data collection: 5;7 - 5;11 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? yes

Type of study:

Correlation study: no

Intervention study: yes

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups: 3

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups: 1

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month): 20 weeks

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month): 15 mins./day

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

Bielefeld Screening Test

Assessment of risk for becoming dyslexic

Phonological awareness test

Assessment of mtealinguistic abilities

Word span task

Assessment of phonological memory

Rapid naming

Speed of access to semantic lexicon

Letter knowledge

Early literacy

Word reading

Early literacy

Vocabulary test

Verbal intelligence

Metalinguistic transfer test

Transer of phonological awareness competencies to new task settings

Wuerzburg Silent Reading Test

Assessment of reading speed in grades 1-3

Reading comprehension test

Reading comprehension in grade 2

Weingarten Basic Vocabulary Spelling Test

Spelling in grade 1

Diagnostic Spelling Test for Second Graders

Diagnostic Spelling Test for Third Graders

Spelling in grades 2-3

Culture Fair Intelligence Test

Non-verbal IQ

 

 

Abstract:

This training study was conducted to explore whether kindergarten children with low phonological processing skills (children at risk for dyslexia) could substantially improve phonological awareness and letter knowledge before entering school, and whether such an improvement would have positive effects on the acquisition of reading and spelling skills in school. From a sample of 726 screened kindergarteners, 138 were selected as children at risk for dyslexia and randomly assigned to 3 different training programs. Whereas one group received phonological awareness training, a second group was taught letter-sound correspondence rules. The third group received a combination of phonological awareness and letter-sound training. The control group consisted of 115 randomly selected ('normal') children who followed the regular kindergarten program. Tests of phonological awareness and other metalinguistic and cognitive variables were given before and after training. A metalinguistic transfer test was provided about 4 months after training at the very beginning of grade 1. Reading and spelling skills were assessed at the end of grades 1-3., respectively. Short- and long-term training effects were found, with the combined training (phonological awareness + letter-sound training) yielding the strongest effects.

Publications:

Roth, E. (1998). Praevention von Lese- und Rechtschreibschwierigkeiten [Prevention of reading and spelling problems]. Frankfurt a.M.: Lang Publishers.

Roth, E., & Schneider, W. (1998). Training of phonological awareness and letter knowledge in children at risk. In: P. Reitsma & L. Verhoeven (Eds.), Problems and interventions in literacy development (pp. 225-240). Dordrecht: Kluwer.

Schneider, W., Roth, E., & Ennemoser, M. (in press). Training phonological skills and letter knowledge in children at risk for dyslexia: A comparison of three kindergarten intervention programs. Journal of Educational Psychology.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I

Germany

Principal investigator(s):

Gerd Schulte-Koerne

H. Remschmidt

W. Deimel

Address: Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

Hans-Sachs-Str. 4-6

35039 Marburg

GERMANY

E-mail-address of the contact-person: schulte1@post.med.uni-marburg.de

Title of study:

Evaluation of school based group training programme for children with a spelling disorder

Key words:

spelling difficulties follow-up study teacher-child interaction remedial intervention prediction of reading and spelling spelling rules

Beginning date of study (month, year): 1999

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 2001

Number of completed waves:

Total number of waves (at the end of the study):

Time interval between waves (average): 1 yr.

Maximum sample size: 40

Size of core sample:

Age range at first data collection:

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? yes

Type of study:

Correlation study: no

Intervention study: yes

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups: 1

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups: 1

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month): 24 mths.

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month): 2 times/week, 1 hr./session

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

Grundintelligenz Test Skala 2

Intelligence Test

Weingartener Rechtschreibtest 2+

Spelling Test

Weingartener Rechtschreibtest 3+

Spelling Test

Westermann Rechtschreibtest 4/5

Spelling Test

Wuerzburger Leise Leseprobe

Reading Test

Salzburger Lesetest

Reading Test

Phoneme deletion

Phonemic awareness

Phonological similarities between orthographic different words

Phonological recoding

Pseudohomophone task

Orthographic coding

Questionnaire

Self assessment of reading and spelling ability, reading and spelling habits, self confidence

 

Abstract:

Aim of the study: To assess the benefits of a school based group training programme for children with specific spelling disorders. The training programme has already been evaluated and found to be successful with parents. The prevalence of reading and spelling disorders is high and it seems more appropriate that these children are helped within their normal school environment. Few programmes have, however, to date been evaluated in a school setting, in particular for specific spelling disorders.

40 children will be recruited from the 2nd and 3rd primary classes according to a teacher’s report. The lower quartile will be offered the opportunity to join the programme and will be randomly assigned to one of two treatment options, firstly the specific training programme described below and secondly a control group who receive the normal help available in the school. Children with an IQ less than 85 or those with psychiatric disturbance will be excluded from the study.

The children will be followed up at 1 and 2 year intervals with class-normalised reading and spelling tests. Questionnaires will be administered to children on self perception of spelling and reading ability and issues relating to self confidence and self worth.

Both the specific training programme and the control group will be composed of 4 groups, each of 5 children. Two teachers will run the programmes, both spending equal amounts of time with each group. Each group will receive two extra one hour sessions each week outside normal school hours. The specific training programme will help the children develop new learning strategies for spelling. They will be taught systematic rules for recognising specific features of words, and to follow algorithms to reach the correct solutions. The teachers will be supervised by an experienced therapist weekly.

The study will begin in summer 1999, such that the intervention can start with the new school year in autumn 1999.

Publications:

Schulte-Koerne G., Schaefer J., Deimel W., Remschmidt H. (1997) Das Marburger Eltern-Kind-Rechtschreibtraining- Erste Befunde. Zeitschrift fuer Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie, 25, 151-159.

Schulte-Koerne G, Deimel W., Remschmidt H. (1998). Das Marburger Eltern-Kind-Rechtschreibtraining. Verlaufsuntersuchungen nach zwei Jahren. Zeitschrift fuer Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie 25,151-159.

I

Germany

Principal investigator(s): Gerd Schulte-Koerne

H. Remschmidt

W. Deimel

Address: Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

Hans-Sachs-Str. 4-6

35039 Marburg

GERMANY

E-mail-address of the contact-person: schulte1@post.med.uni-marburg.de

Title of study:

Evaluation of the Marburg parent child spelling training program

Key words:

spelling difficulties follow-up study parent-child interactions remedial intervention prediction of reading and spelling spelling rules

Beginning date of study (month, year): 1996

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 1998

Number of completed waves: 3

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 3

Time interval between waves (average): 1 yr.

Maximum sample size: 19

Size of core sample: 17

Age range at first data collection: children:9.7 mothers:37.8

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? yes

Type of study:

Correlation study: no

Intervention study: yes

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups: 1

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month): 24 mths.

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month): 2-3 times/week, 30 min./session

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

Grundintelligenz Test Skala 2

Intelligence Test

Diagnostischer Rechtschreibtest 2

Spelling Test

Diagnostischer Rechtschreibtest 3

Spelling Test

Westermann Rechtschreibtest 4/5

Spelling Test

Westermann Rechtschreibtest 6+

Spelling Test

Mannheimer Rechtschreibtest

Spelling test (adults only)

Questionnaire

Self assessment of reading and spelling ability, reading and spelling habits, self confidence

 

 

Abstract:

The goal of the study was to assess the benefits of a child-parent spelling programme for spelling disordered children.

Nineteen children (14 boys and 5 girls ) with a specific spelling disorder were recruited. Mean age was 9,7 (SD=0,9), and intelligence was in the normal range. The children and their parents were assessed prior to the onset of the training period and the children were followed up at 1 and 2 year intervals with normalised spelling tests. Questionnaires were also administered to children and parents on self perception of spelling ability and issues relating to self confidence and self worth.

The training programme helped the children to develop new learning strategies for spelling. They were taught systematic rules for recognising specific features of words, and followed algorithms to reach the correct solutions. The programme was followed for half an hour. 2-3 times weekly and was supervised by the parents. Material for the programme was provided and the parents were supported by monthly group sessions with an experienced therapist.

At 1 year follow up, there was no significant improvement in global spelling ability detected. However, there was a significant improvement in the specific areas targeted by the programme. At 2 year follow up, the specific areas practised had further significantly improved and this benefit had generalised to a significant benefit in the overall spelling ability. In addition, the children reported greater degrees of self confidence in related areas such as writing on the blackboard and reading out loud in front of the class. A regression analysis was performed to assess the predictors of improvement. No factors were found to be significantly associated with the global improvement. However, improvement in the specific practised areas was significantly better in those children who had a non-working mother.

The project demonstrates the value of a low cost intervention for children with specific spelling disorder. It demonstrates the potential value of including parents in a programme helping them to develop a better understanding of the disorder, and also potentially strengthening the parent child relationship. The improved self confidence in the children is likely to be an important protective factor against the development of the associated emotional disturbances which are not uncommon in this disorder.

 

Publications:

Schulte-Koerne G., Schaefer J., Deimel W., Remschmidt H. (1997) Das Marburger Eltern-Kind-Rechtschreibtraining- Erste Befunde. Zeitschrift fuer Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie, 25, 151-159.

Schulte-Koerne G, Deimel W., Remschmidt H. (1998). Das Marburger Eltern-Kind-Rechtschreibtraining. Verlaufsuntersuchungen nach zwei Jahren. Zeitschrift fuer Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie 25,151-159.

C

Germany

Principal investigator(s):

Renate Valtin

Address: Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin

Philosophische Fakultaet IV

Institut fuer Schulpaedagogik u. paed. Psychologie

Abt. Grundschulpaedagogik

Unter den Linden 6

10099 Berlin

GERMANY

E-mail-address of the contact-person: renate.valtin@rz.hu-berlin.de

Title of study:

Project "NOVARA" / project "SABA"

Key words:

self-concept motivation attribution test anxiety school achievement marks vs. verbal evaluation

Beginning date of study (month, year): 06-94

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 06-98

Number of completed waves: 7

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 8

Time interval between waves (average): 0,5 yrs. (school achievement 1 yr.)

Maximum sample size: 690

Size of core sample: 240

Age range at first data collection: 6;10 - 9;8 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

questionnaire students

acceptance of verbal evaluation and marks, self-concept of ability, attitude towards learning and school subjects, attribution of success and failure, test anxiety

Columbia Mental Maturity Scale (CMMS)

intelligence

Allgemeiner Schulleistungstest fuer Klasse 2 (AST 2)

school achievement: reading, spelling, arithmetic

Allgemeiner Schulleistungstest fuer Klasse 3 & 4 (AST 3/AST 4)

school achievement: spelling, arithmetic

Hamburger kombinierter Schulleistungstest fuer 4. Und 5. Klassen (KS HAM 4/5) [selected subtests]

school achievement: reading, spelling, arithmetic

questionnaire parents, teachers

acceptance of verbal evaluation and marks, attitudes towards school-related questions, satisfaction with school

 

 

Abstract:

Project "NOVARA" / Project "SABA"

NOVARA, the acronym of German Noten- oder Verbalbeurteilung - Akzeptanz, Realisierung und Auswirkungen (i.e., Acceptance, Realization, and Effects of Different Forms of Evaluation at Primary School: Verbal Reports vs. Marks), is a research project which analyses the consequences of the reform concerning the modes of evaluation (introduction of verbal evaluation as an alternative to marks) in Berlin under three aspects:

Firstly, the acceptance of verbal reports and marks among students, parents, and teachers; secondly, the realization of verbal reports by teachers. Thirdly, the project includes a longitudinal comparison (grade 2 to 4) between students who get marks and who get verbal reports with regard to developments in their school achievement (reading, spelling, arithmetic) and in schoolrelated personality factors (self-concepts of ability, attitude towards learning and school subjects, attribution of success and failure, achievement motivation and test anxiety).

The sample comprises 41 classes with each 10 to 20 children who were individually tested or in groups. Contrary to the expectation no deterioration of self-concepts of ability or attitude toward learning and no increase in test anxiety was observed. The comprises classes with marks vs. verbal evaluation revealed no remarkable differences.

SABA, which stands for German Schulische Anpassung und Bildungsaspiration (i.e., Adaptation to School and Academic Aspiration), is a sequel project to NOVARA. It continues the examination of the three main points mentioned above within an extended scope of analysis. The longitudinal study on the development of school achievement and related personality factors will be continued up to the grade of 6.

Publications:

Valtin, R. & Rosenfeld, H. (1997). Zur Praeferenz von Noten- und Verbalbeurteilung - ein Vergleich Ost- und Westberliner Eltern. In: Zeitschrift fuer Paedagogik, 37. Beiheft.

Valtin, R. & Wuerscher, I. (1995). Giftpilz des Haus- und Schullebens? Zur Bedeutung von Noten und Zeugnissen. Erste Ergebnisse aus einem Forschungsprojekt. Humboldt-Spektrum, 4, 46-51.

Valtin, R., Wuerscher, I., Rosenfeld, H., Schmude, C. & Wisser, Ch. (1996b). Der Beitrag der Schule zur Persoenlichkeitsentwicklung. Erste Ergebnisse einer Laengsschnittstudie. In: D. Benner, H. Merkens & F. Schmidt (Hrsg.), Bildung und Schule im Transformationsprozess von SBZ, DDR und neuen Laendern - Untersuchungen zur Kontinuitaet und Wandel. Erste Ergebnisse aus der an der Freien Universitaet und der Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin eingerichteten DFG-Forschergruppe (S. 219-248).

Valtin, R., Wuerscher, I., Rosenfeld, H., Schmude, C. & Wisser, Ch. (1996c). Zeugnisse auf dem Pruefstand. Noten- oder Verbalbeurteilung im Ost-West-Vergleich. In D. Benner, H. Merkens & Th. Gatzemann (Hrsg.), Paedagogische Eigenlogiken im Transformationsprozess von SBZ, DDR und neuen Laendern - Neue Ergebnisse aus der an der Freien Universitaet Berlin und der Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin eingerichteten DFG-Forschergruppe (S. 122-182).

Valtin, R., Wuerscher, I. & Schmude, C. (1999). Noten- oder Berichtszeugnisse? Ergebnisse aus dem Forschungsprojekt NOVARA. In: H. Giest & G. Scheerer-Neumann (Hrsg.), Jahrbuch Grundschulforschung, Band 2. Weinheim: Deutscher Studien Verlag.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

Germany

Principal investigator(s):

Andreas Warnke

H. Remschmidt

G. Schulte-Koerne

K. Hennighausen

Address: Univ.-Nervenklinik

Fuechsleinstr. 15

D-97080 Wuerzburg

GERMANY

E-mail-address of the contact-person: warnke@nervenklinik.uni-wuerzburg.de

Title of study:

Experimental follow-up study on visual and language information processing in children with developmental dyslexia.

Key words:

experimental follow-up study EEG visual information processing verbal information processing reaction time

Beginning date of study (month, year): 1989

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 1998

Number of completed waves: 2

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 2

Time interval between waves (average): 2–3 yrs.

Maximum sample size: 30

Size of core sample: 17

Age range at first data collection: 10 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? yes

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

WISC-R

intelligence-assessment

spelling-tests

assessment of spelling-level

visual reaction time-test

visual-motor-reaction time

word-approximation test

assessment of information processing according to similarity of items to verbal language

visual event related potential

assessment of visual evoked potentials

 

 

Abstract:

The aim of the study was the replication of neuropsychological and electrophysiological correlates of dyslexia. The main question was in how far neuropsychological and electrophysiological data are stable in dyslexic boys which were retested three years after the first measurement.

The original sample included 30 dyslexic boys which were compared with 28 control subjects matched according to sex, age, social-class, grade in school, and WISC-R performance IQ.

The procedure included EEG-recording during rest conditions and while responding to visually presented stimuli variated in their similarity to language. The items were controlled for task difficulty. The tasks were presented on a video screen of a computer. EEG was recorded according to the international 10/20 scheme.

The most important results were:

1) Dyslexics showed a significant linguistic delay in processing visually presented letter strings when compared to control children and this linguistic impairment remained stable over time.

2) There was also a non-linguistic component of delay in 10 year old dyslexics which was not constant over time.

3) In 10 year old dyslexics a significant anomaly of visual evoked potentials was replicated in the left central area. This variation of the event-related potential was age-dependent.

The interpretation is that in dyslexia are specific abnormalities in linguistic and visual information processing which can be correlated with variations in cognitive evoked potentials. The linguistic impairment is of most significance and stable within the age range of 10 to 13 years; the delay in information processing is age-dependent.

Publications:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

Germany

Principal investigator(s):

Franz E. Weinert

Wolfgang Schneider

Jan Carol Naeslund

Address: Max-Planck Institute for Psychological Research

Leopoldstrasse 24

D-80802 Muenchen

GERMANY

E-mail-address of the contact-person: weinert@mpipf-muenchen.mpf.de

Title of study:

Assessment of reading and spelling development (Munich Longitudinal Study on the Genesis of Individual Competencies (LOGIC))

Key words:

acquisition of literacy prediction of reading and spelling kindergarten screening of phonological awareness gender differences

Beginning date of study (month, year): 09-84

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 07-98

Number of completed waves: 10

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 10

Time interval between waves (average): 1 yr.

Maximum sample size: 217

Size of core sample: 150

Age range at first data collection: 3;4 - 4;7 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

Bielefeld Screening Test

Assessment of phonological information processing (identification of risk factors)

Columbia Mental Maturity Scale

Culture Fair Intelligence Test

Assessment of non-verbal intelligence

Hannover-Wechsler Intelligence Test for Pre-school Children (Hawiva)

Hamburg-Wechsler Intelligence Test for Children (HAWIK)

Assessment of verbal intelligence

Word span task, Listening span task

Assessment of short-term memory capacity

Sign knowledge

Letter knowledge

Word writing (end of kindergarten)

Early literacy

Sound categorization task

Rhyming skills

Word and nonword decoding speed

Reading speed (grade 2)

Reading comprehension test

Reading comprehension (grade 2)

Spelling tests (self-constructed word lists and sentences)

Spelling skills assessed in grades 2,3,4, and 5

Standardized spelling test (RT)

Spelling skills assessed at the age of 17

 

 

Abstract:

The Munich Longitudinal Study of the Genesis of Longitudinal Competencies (LOGIC) has been conducted at the Max Planck Institute for Psychological Research in Munich from 1984 to 1993. A follow-up study was carried out in 1998 when the participants were 17 years old. The major goal of the study was to analyze developmental changes in the social, cognitive, and personality domain and to explore possible interrelationships in developmental changes over domains. Within the cognitive domain, one main issue was to explore the development of literacy and the role of various kindergarten precursors for reading and spelling development in school. A variety of tasks that tapped phonological processing, memory capacity, early literacy, and intelligence was given when the children were about 5-6 years old and attended the last year of kindergarten. Children's word decoding, reading comprehension, and spelling skills were assessed over the course of the following school years (until the end of grade 5). Spelling skills were also assessed in a follow-up when participants were 17 years old. As a main result, all of the predictor domains had a significant impact on the acquisition of literacy in elementary school, although the contribution of each domain differed as a function of the criterion. Overall, gender differences did not play a major role. Spelling skills assessed at the age of 17 were well predicted by spelling skills assessed in elementary school, indicating large individual stabilities of this variable across childhood and adolescence.

Publications:

Naeslund, J.C. (1990). The interrelationships among pre-school predictors of reading acquisition for German children. Reading and Writing, 2, 327-360.

Schneider, W., & Naeslund, J.C. (1993). The impact of early metalinguistic competencies and memory capacity on reading and spelling in elementary school: Results of the Munich Longitudinal Study on the Genesis of Individual Competencies (LOGIC). European Journal of Psychology of Education, 8, 273-287.

Schneider, W., & Naeslund, J.C. (1999). Impact of early phonological processing skills on reading and spelling in school: Evidence from the Munich Longitudinal Study. In F.E. Weinert & W. Schneider (Eds.), Individual development from 3 to 12: Findings from the Munich Longitudinal Study (pp. 127-147). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

Germany

Principal investigator(s): Franz. E. Weinert

Andreas Helmke

Wolfgang Schneider

Jan Carol Naeslund

Address: Max-Planck Institute for Psychological Research

Leopoldstr. 24

D-80802 Muenchen

GERMANY

E-mail-address of the contact-person: weinert@mippf-muenchen.mpg.de

Title of study:

Individual changes in reading comprehension and spelling skills over the elementary school years: Findings from the Munich SCHOLASTIC project

Key words:

acquisition of literacy large-scale longitudinal study gender differences relevance of educational context intelligence and learning motivation

Beginning date of study (month, year): 09-87

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 07-93

Number of completed waves: 6

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 6

Time interval between waves (average): 1 yr.

Maximum sample size: 1132

Size of core sample: 1000

Age range at first data collection: 6;5 - 7;5 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

Hamburg-Wechsler Intelligence Test for Children (HAWIK)

Verbal intelligence

Culture Fair Intelligence Test

Non-verbal intelligence

Reading comprehension test

(self-constructed)

Reading comprehension in grade 2

Word dictation test

Spelling skill assessed in grade 2

Sentence dictation test

Spelling skill assessed in grades 3-5

 

 

Abstract:

The main goal of the SCHOLASTIC study was to assess the impact of educational variables on children's cognitive, motivational and emotional development. It is closely related to the Munich Longitudinal Study LOGIC in that the classmates of the 200 LOGIC children were recruited as additional subjects when children entered elementary school. The SCHOLASTIC study comprises about 70% of the LOGIC children and their classmates, averaging a sample size of about 1100 children. One of the goals within the cognitive domain was the analysis of individual changes in reading comprehension and spelling skills over the elementary school years. Overall, large individual stabilities (test-retest correlations) were found for both reading comprehension and spelling. Growth curve analyses showed that spelling skills improved considerably over the elementary school years, and that individual differences in intelligence and learning motivation predicted individual differences in spelling skills. In comparison, gender differences did not have a significant impact on spelling achievement in the early school years. However, girls were significantly better spellers than boys at the end of elementary school. Classroom membership turned out to be an important predictor of spelling development, indicating that individual differences in educational context and quality of instruction do play a role and should be considered in future large-scale studies on reading and spelling.

Publications:

Schneider, W. (1994). Geschlechtsunterschiede beim Schriftspracherwerb: Befunde aus den Muenchner Laengsschnittstudien LOGIK und SCHOLASTIK [Gender differences in the acquisition of literacy: Findings from the Munich longitudinal studies LOGIC and SCHOLASTIC]. In S. Richter & H. Bruegelmann (Eds.), Maedchen lernen anders lernen Jungen (pp.71-82). Konstanz: Libelle.

Schneider, W., Stefanek, J., & Dotzler, H. (1997). Erwerb des Lesens und des Rechtschreibens: Ergebnisse aus dem SCHOLASTIK-Projekt [On the acquisition of reading and spelling: Findings from the SCHOLASTIK project]. In F.E. Weinert & A. Helmke (Eds.), Entwicklung im Grundschulalter (pp. 113-129). Muenchen: Psychologie Verlags Union.

Van Aken, M., Helmke, A., & Schneider, W. (1997). Selbstkonzept und Leistung - Dynamik ihres Zusammenspiels: Ergebnisse aus dem SCHOLASTIK-Projekt [Self concept and achievement - The dynamics of their interplay: Findings from the SCHOLASTIC project]. In F.E. Weinert & A. Helmke (Eds.), Entwicklung im Grundschulalter (pp. 341-350). Muenchen: Psychologie Verlags Union.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I

Greece

Principal investigator(s):

C.D. Porpodas

A. Palaeothodorou

Address: University of Patras

Department of Education, Unit of Dyslexia

26500 Patras

GREECE

E-mail-address of the contact-person: porpodas@upatras.gr

Title of study:

A training study on phonological awareness and its effects on learning to read and spell in Greek language.

Key words:

phonological awareness phonological training reading acquisition spelling

Beginning date of study (month, year): 03-96

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 06-98

Number of completed waves: 6

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 6

Time interval between waves (average): 4,5 mths.

Maximum sample size: 173

Size of core sample: 142

Age range at first data collection: 6;2 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: no

Intervention study: yes

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups: 2

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups: 1

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month): 10 weeks

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month): 5-6 hrs./week

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

vocabulary test (at kindergarten, April, test 1-6)

recognition of comprehension level of spoken words of Greek students

phoneme synthesis test

recognition of children´s linguistic ability to synthesize phonemes for the word production

phoneme analysis test

recognition of children´s ability to analyse words into their phonemes

identification and deletion of initial phoneme test

recognition of children´s ability to identify and seperate the initial phoneme from a spoken word

sound categorization test: end sound

recognition of children´s ability to recognize the end sound of words

sound categorization test: first sound

recognition of children´s ability to recognize the first sound of words

syllable analysis test (in primary school, class A, October, test 7-10)

recognition of children´s ability to analyse the words into their syllables

phoneme analysis test

recognition of children´s ability to analyse words into their phonemes

syllable deletion test

recognition of children´s ability to delete a phoneme of a spoken word and pronounce the rest of it

phoneme deletion test

recognition of children´s ability to delete a phoneme of a spoken word and pronounce the rest of it

reading words test (in primary school, class A, March, tests 11-15)

recognition of children´s ability to read words classified in high-low level and regular-irregular categorization

reading nonwords test

recognition of children´s ability to read words without meaning (these nonwords have come from words changing, at least two letters)

spelling words test

recognition of children´s ability to spell words (the same words as reading test)

spelling nonwords test

recognition of children´s ability to spell words without meaning (the same nonwords as reading nonwords test)

mathematics test

recognition of children´s ability to execute simple mathematics activities and solve simple mathematics problems

reading words test (in primary school, class B, March, tests 16-20)

recognition of children´s ability to read words (more complex than those of previous year)

reading nonwords test

recognition of children´s ability to read words without meaning

spelling words test

recognition of children´s ability to spell words (the same as those of reading test)

spelling nonwords test

recognition of children´s ability to spell words without meaning

mathematics test

recognition of children´s ability to execute simple mathematics acitivities and solve simple mathematics problems.

 

 

Abstract:

The present longitudinal study attempted to investigate the role of training on phonological awareness skills and its effects in the acquisition of reading and spelling of the Greek language. Although previous studies have shown a close relationship between phonological awareness and reading and spelling development nevertheless this is though to be the first study in which an attempt was made to investigate the importance of systematic training on phonological awareness and its effect in the acquisition of reading and spelling of Greek language.

For this a prior selection of Kindergarten pupils was made in March 1996, based on their negligible ability of phoneme awareness (pre-test). On the basis of that, three groups (A,B,C) of subjects were formed, matched in terms of C.A. Intelligence level and family socio-economical status. Group A was trained in phoneme awareness tasks, group B in visual-spatial activities while the group C was the experimental one following the Kindergarten´s normal curriculum.

The training took place three times a week for 20´ in the classroom by the second author assisted by class-teachers of the Kindergarten.

After the end of the training a post-test on phonological awareness was administered to the subjects of the three groups (June 1996). A second post-test was also given in September-October 1996, at the time the subjects started going to Primary A class. In the second half of the years, in which the subjects were attending Primary A and B (April 1997, March 1998) an analytical testing of their reading, spelling and mathematical ability was conducted.

The results indicated that the training in phonological awareness had a positive effect on reading and spelling development but not in the learning of mathematics.

These findings tend to support the hypothesis for the causal connection between phonological awareness and literacy acquisition.

Publications:

Porpodas, C.D. & Palaeothodorou, A. (1998). The longitudinal relationship between phoneme awareness and reading and spelling performance in Greek language. Paper presented at the first Panhellenic Conference on Educational Research, Nafpaktos, 13-15 November, Greece.

Porpodas, C.D. & Palaeothodorou, A. (1999). A training study on phonological awareness and its effect on learning to read and spell in Greek language. Paper accepted for presentation at 5th European Conference on Developmental Psychology on 2-5 September in Spetses, Greece.

Porpodas, C.D. & Palaeothodorou, A. (1999). Phonological training and reading and spelling acquisition. Paper accepted for presentation at 5th European Conference on Psychological Assessment in Patras, 25-29 August, Greece.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I

Iceland

Principal investigator(s):

Ingibjoerg Simonardottir

Johanna Einarsdottir

Amalia Bjoernsdottir

Hrafnhildur Ragnarsdottir

Address: Baejarskrifstofur Gardabaejar

Skolaskrifstofa

Gadatorgi 7

210 Gardabaer

ICELAND

E-mail-address of the contact-person: ingibjorgs@gardabaer.is

Title of study:

Phonological and linguistic awareness and its effect on later reading achievement - a longitudinal study.

Key words:

phonological awareness linguistic awareness dyslexia prevention of dyslexia language abilities

Beginning date of study (month, year): 09-96

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 05-00

Number of completed waves: 7

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 9

Time interval between waves (average): 6,5 mths. (8 weeks - 1 yr.)

Maximum sample size: 113+187

Size of core sample: 300

Age range at first data collection: 5;3 - 5;10 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: no

Intervention study: yes

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups: 2x2

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups: 3

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month): 6 weeks

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month): 20 min./day

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

Hljom (Ingibjoerg Simonardottir, Johanna Einarsdottir)

Test phonological and linguistic awareness by all children in both core samples (at 5 yrs. of age) and to the children in the training groups (drawn from the 2nd core sample; at the end of the training session Hljom was tested again (the children in the training groups only)

The "Traine" (Ingibjoerg Simonardottir, Johanna Einarsdottir)

a short version of Hljom used in the middle of training period as a part of a lesson

Video

used to compare the ability of the children in storytelling at the beginning and end and really during the period of training with that method

Reading ability test I (Ingibjoerg Simonardottir)

to test the reading ability of the children in the core samples at the end of 1st grade; the text is based on the same ideas as Hljom (Lundberg et al.)

Reading ability test II (Ingibjoerg Simonardottir)

to test the reading ability of 2nd core sample at the end of 2nd grade; based on same ideas as RAT I

 

 

Abstract:

Phonological awareness of children at 5 years of age and its effect on later reading achievement and the value of intensive training aiming at preventing later reading and writing problems, will be tested. The participants in the study are 300 Icelandic children, age 5;3 – 5;10 years. The duration of the study is four years. The researchers are two speech therapists with a long experience in diagnosing language problems in children and giving remedial training. They plan to do all the testing themselves.

The first stage (March-April 1997, after pre-cluster testing in September 1996):

A cluster-sample of 150 children was drawn out in 6-8 pre-schools in the Reykjavik area. The children's linguistic and phonological awareness was tested with a battery of tests including both analytic (segmenting) and synthetic (blending) phonological tasks and also with the short version of TOLD2-P-Test of language development.

We hypothesized that about 20% of these children will be 1-2 SD below average compared to the other 80% in the group. These 20-30 children didn't get any extra training but will later act (at the third stage) as a control group. The computed data will be kept for later use.

The second stage (February – September 1998):

(1) February – June 1998: The first stage procedure was repeated and a new cluster sample of 187 children were found from the same 8 (+3) pre-schools as the year before, comparable in age, sex and social background to the former group. This time the children in this second sample who were 1-2 SD below the sample's average were offered intensive phonological, linguistic and orthographical training for 12 weeks, 20 minutes a day. The primary sources for the training program were findings of international researchers adapted to Icelandic surroundings. At the end of the period the children in these training groups were retested and as before the results kept for final multiple regression analyses, hopefully supporting the hypothesis that dynamic assessment enhances the predictive utility of linguistic and phonological awareness.

(2) May – June 1998: The reading ability and the phonological and linguistic awareness of the children from Stage 1 was tested. By that time the children were finishing 1st grade.

 

 

The Third stage (May 1999 – May 2000)

(1) May 1999: 1) The reading ability and phonological awareness of the children from the second stage will be assessed. These children will by then be finishing 1st grade. 2) The reading ability and spelling of the children from Stage 1, now finishing 2nd grade, will be assessed again.

(2) May 2000: Children from the second stage, then finishing their 2nd grade, will be retested on their reading ability and spelling.

At the end of the project, the authors hope to be able to offer courses in the training of linguistic and phonological awareness to staff members in the pre-schools, based on the findings of this longitudinal study.

Publications:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I

Ireland

Principal investigator(s):

Jean Whyte

Address: University of Dublin

Trinity College

Clinical Speech and Language Studies

Dublin 2

IRELAND

E-mail-address of the contact-person:

Title of study:

Longitudinal correlates and outcomes of initial reading progress for a sample of Belfast boys.

Key words:

Early language intervention reading social and educational outcomes

Beginning date of study (month, year): 1975

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 1991

Number of completed waves: 12

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 12

Time interval between waves (average): 1 yr. (from age 4;6 – 11;6), then 2 yrs.

Maximum sample size: 100

Size of core sample: 63

Age range at first data collection: 4;6 yrs.

Data computerized?

Are data accessible to other researchers?

Type of study:

Correlation study: no

Intervention study: yes

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups: 1

Type of treatment group(s):

  • language programme (development of vocabulary, expressive language and concepts)

No. of control groups: 1

Type of control group(s):

  • normal preschool programme

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

Draw-a-Man-Test

Pre-reading cognitive measures

Burt Word Reading Test (BWRT, 1974)

Reading status (primary school)

Group Reading Test (Young, 1973b)

Reading status (primary school)

Spar Reading Test (Young, 1973d)

Reading status (primary school)

Edinburgh Reading Test (1977)

Reading status (secondary school)

NFER Test NS6 (1960)

Reading status (secondary school)

Primary Mental Abilities Test (PMA, 1958)

Cognitive development

Boehm Test of Basic Concepts

Knowledge of basic concepts

English Picture Vocabulary Test (EPVT, 1962)

Vocabulary

WISC

Verbal IQ

JEPI (1965)

Personality and adjustment (extraversion, neuroticism, lying)

Hater Perceived Competence Scale (1979)

Self-worth, social competence

Abstract:

The findings from this study of 100 Belfast boys, from age 4 to age 21, carried out from 1975 to 1991 relate to the long-term effects of language intervention on reading, the rates of progress of children who make a poor start and of those who make a good start, the relationship of cognitive and social variables both to the acquisition of reading skill and the use made of reading and the outcomes at age 19-21 for those found to have been good and poor readers at age 6.5. It found that the outcomes of instruction can vary substantially between individuals, suggesting that other factors must be impinging on the outcome. Degrees of social disadvantage can influence preschool development in crucial areas such as vocabulary and language development and familiarity with print. Failure at an early stage in the process can have devastating effects on attitudes and influence future progress.

Publications:

Whyte, J. (1983). Educational enrichment with deprived children: the long-term consequences. In J. Harbison (Ed.), Children of the Troubles (pp. 59-173). Belfast: Stranmillis Learning Resources Unit.

Whyte, J. (1987). Knowledge of basic concepts and early and later reading attainment. Irish Educational Studies, 8, 323-336.

Whyte, J. (1989). The long-term implications of a pre-school language intervention programme. In J. Harbison (Ed.), Growing up in Northern Ireland (pp. 160-173). Belfast: Stranmillis Learning Resources Unit.

Whyte, J. (1992a). Disadvantage and unemployment: a longitudinal study of psychosocial variables. Irish Journal of Psychology, 13, 193-209.

Whyte, J. (1993). Longitudinal correlates and outcomes of initial reading progress for a sample of Belfast boys. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 8, 325-340.

As the author could not answer the questionnaire, all information was gathered from the author´s publications.

I

Israel

Principal investigator(s):

Lea Kozminsky

Ely Kozminsky

Address: Ben Gurion University

Department of Education

P.O. Box 653

Beer-Sheva 84105

ISRAEL

E-mail-address of the contact-person: ely@bgumail.bgu.ac.il

Title of study:

The effects of early phonological awareness training on reading success.

Key words:

phonological awareness reading comprehension kindergarten intervention program

Beginning date of study (month, year):

Date of latest data collection (month, year): published 1995

Number of completed waves: 4

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 4

Time interval between waves (average):

Maximum sample size: 70

Size of core sample: 53

Age range at first data collection: 5;3 yrs.

Data computerized? no

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: no

Intervention study: yes

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups: 1

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups: 2

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month): 8 mths.

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

LAC test (Lindamood Auditory Conceptualization Test, Lindamood & Lindamood, 1979) (adapted for Hebrew speakers)

phonological awareness

Phonological Awareness Test (PAT) (especially constructed in Hebrew)

phonological awareness

Hebrew-language Reading Comprehension Test (Ortar, 1987)

reading comprehension

 

 

Abstract:

This longitudinal study establishes predictive and causal relationships between pre-reading phonological awareness and reading success in first and third grades. Seventy students from two kindergarten classes, who subsequently registered in the same elementary school, were studied. The experimental class received an eight-month PA training program. Phonological awareness was measured at three points of time: pre-training, end of kindergarten and end of first grade and reading comprehension was assessed at the end of first grade and third grades. A significant difference in PA skills was found between groups at the end of the kindergarten year. A comparison of reading comprehension scores, controlling for the pre-training PA scores, yielded significant differences for the experimental group in both first and third grades. The phonological awareness tasks of initial phoneme isolation and sound deletion were highly predictive of success in first-grade reading acquisition.

 

Publications:

Kozminsky, L. & Kozminsky, E. (1995). The effects of early phonological awareness training on reading success. Learning and Instruction, 5, 187-201.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

As the authors could not answer the questionnaire, all information was gathered from the authors´ publications.

C

Italy

Principal investigator(s):

Cesare Cornoldi

Lucina Tretti

Palma Roberta Corcella

Patrizio E. Tressoldi

Alessandra Terreni

Address: Universita di Padova

Dipartimento di Psicologia Generale

Via Venezia, 8

35131 Padova

ITALY

E-mail-address of the contact-person: cornoldi@psico.unipd.it

Title of study:

Validation of a Teachers´ Questionnaire for the identification of learning disability at-risk children.

Key words:

learning disabilities

Beginning date of study (month, year): 10-97

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 05-99

Number of completed waves: 3

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 3

Time interval between waves (average): 6 mths.

Maximum sample size: 765

Size of core sample: 300

Age range at first data collection: 5 - 6 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? yes

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other: Validation of an instrument

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

Teachers´ questionnaire

Early identification of learning disabilities at-risk children

Visual Motor Integration Test

validation of visuo-motor abilities

Blending and phoneme analysis (from PRCR-2 battery, Cornoldi et al.)

validation of metaphonological abilities

Visual discrimination (from PRCR-2 battery, Cornoldi et al.)

validation of visual discrimination abilities

Picture naming (from PRCR-2 battery, Cornoldi et al.)

validation of speed of naming

Comprehension of sentences

validation of syntax abilities

 

 

Abstract:

The main purpose to develop the questionnaire was to devise a practical instrument to identify children at risk for learning disability before the end of their kindergarten attendance.

The questionnaire was completed by teachers and its final version included 43 items covering the following cognitive domains:

- Language Comprehension;

- Language Production;

- Memory;

- Visuo-motor integration;

- Motor coordination;

- Metacognition;

- Pre-reading abilities;

- Pre-mathematics abilities;

Each item represents a question related to the child level of acquisition of a given ability. The answer are rated on a Likert scale from 1 to 4.

Data were collected on 765 children.

Interrater and test-retest reliability was satisfactory (>.75). Discriminant validity was controlled comparing the sores obtained by a subgroup of at-risk children (with a total score at the Questionnaire <=10th percentile) and a subgroup of not at-risk children (Questionnaire total score >= 50th percentile) with a battery of paper and pencil validated instruments.

The predictive validity is under verification.

Publications:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

Italy

Principal investigator(s):

Roberta Penge

Bruna Mazzoncini

Gabriel Levi

Address: University of Rome "La Sapienza"

Department of Child and Adolescent Neurology and Psychiatry

Via die Sabelli 108

00185 Rome

ITALY

E-mail-address of the contact-person: rpenge@axrma.uniroma1.it

Title of study:

A longitudinal screening for the early detection of learning disabilities.

Key words:

prevention of dyslexia LD subtypes linguistic abilities metalinguistic abilities

Beginning date of study (month, year): 05-93

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 05-97

Number of completed waves: 4

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 4

Time interval between waves (average): 18 mths.

Maximum sample size: 65

Size of core sample: 61

Age range at first data collection: 5;6 – 6;4 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? yes

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

Trog- Italian Version

Verbal syntactic comprehension

Oral Story Telling

Overall linguistic competencies

Test of Scissors and Bicycle drawing

Graphic competencies

Phonemic blending and phonemic awareness

Metaphonological competencies

Word and sentences reading and writing

First reading and spelling acquisition

Word and sentences reading comprehension

First reading comprehension acquisition

Sartori and Job Word Reading Battery

Accuracy and speed in single word and non-word reading and writing

Cornoldi M.T. Reading Test

Accuracy, speed and comprehension in text reading

Text writing

Accuracy in text writing and writing organisation

Arithmetical problems

Mathematics reasoning and calculation

 

Abstract:

The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the possibility of developing a test battery suitable to detect, during pre-school years, those subjects who are going to develop a reading and writing disability. Also, we wanted to verify the presence of different subtypes of learning disabilities, both on respect of reading and writing profile and on patogenetic core of the disability.

The sample was made of the entire population of children attending the last year of kindergarten school in a little city near Rome. 61 of the original 65 children were examined during the starting year, at the end of the 1st grade, at the end of the 2nd grade and at the end of the 4th grade.

Each child was tested, at every measurement point, with linguistic, meta-phonological and visuo-spatial tasks. In addition, in 1st, 2nd and 4th grade, children were presented with standardized reading and writing tests. Children were divided in three groups (normal, at low risk and at high risk) on the basis of their overall performance on the pre-school battery.

Results at the end of the study showed that all these children developed a learning disability belonged to the high risk group at pre-school age. Among LD children it was possible to distinguish between two different subgroups with different learning profile: the first showed a wide involvement of all reading and writing competencies; in the kindergarten evaluation this group showed inadequate responses to both general linguistic and meta-phonological tests. The second group showed a more "specific" reading and writing problem (e.g. on accuracy and/or speed, but not on comprehension). These children showed a lack only in meta-phonological tasks of the kindergarten battery.

Publications:

Penge R., Capozzi F., Levi G., Mariani E., Pieretti M. (1996) Uno screening longitudinale per la prevenzione dei DSA. Psichiatria dell’Infanzia e dell’Adolescenza, 63:615-624.

Penge R., Mariani E., Pieretti M., Ceccarelli G., Arcangeli F. (1999) Uno screening longitudinale per la prevenzione dei DSA: risultati in IV elementare. Psichiatria dell’Infanzia e dell’Adolescenza, in corso di stampa.

 

C

Italy

Principal investigator(s): Roberta Penge

Bruna Mazzoncini

Gabriel Levi

M. Francesca Freda

Address: University of Rome "La Sapienza"

Department of Child and Adolescent Neurology and Psychiatry

Via die Sabelli 108

00185 Rome

ITALY

E-mail-address of the contact-person: rpenge@axrma.uniroma1.it

Title of study:

A longitudinal screening for learning disabilities prevention.

Key words:

Prevention of dyslexia reading and writing antecedents

Beginning date of study (month, year): 05-95

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 05-98

Number of completed waves: 3

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 3

Time interval between waves (average): 12 mths.

Maximum sample size: 562

Size of core sample: 272

Age range at first data collection: 4;6 – 5;4 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? yes

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

Trog- Italian Version

Verbal syntactic comprehension

Oral Story Telling

Overall linguistic competencies

Test of Scissors and Bicycle drawing

Graphic competencies

Test of Bi-manual Praxias

Practical competencies

Phonemic blending and phonemic awareness

Metaphonological competencies

Non Verbal Problem Solving

Logical competencies and nonverbal reasoning

Word and sentences reading and writing

First reading and spelling acquisition

Word and sentences reading comprehension

First reading comprehension acquisition

Sartori and Job Word Reading Battery

Accuracy and speed in single word and non-word reading and writing

Cornoldi M.T. Reading Test

Accuracy, speed and comprehension in text reading

Text writing

Accuracy in text writing and writing organization

Arithmetical problems

Mathematical reasoning and calculation

CBCL - Teacher Report Form – competence scale

Academic achievement and teacher’s perception

 

 

Abstract:

The aim of the study is to construct a Test Battery for 4 and 5 years old children able to identify those subjects who are going to develop a learning disability at the end of the 1st grade. The battery, designed through a pilot study, was validated concerning test-retest stability and scores were normalised on a larger group (about 570 children) for each age range. A comparably smaller group (272 subjects) was tested three times when they were 4 and 5 years old and again at the end of the 1st grade of elementary school; the sample of the study was randomly selected among children attending public kindergarten and elementary schools of two different Italian cities. Concurrent with the screening procedures (and before results were available) teachers were requested to complete a questionnaire about children´s academic achievement.

Results of the longitudinal data are still on elaboration; normative data (and "at risk" levels of responses) for each age group, have been translated in qualitative language and used with groups of teachers to discuss pedagogic cores of intervention to strengthen at risk groups of children.

Publications:

Mazzoncini B., Freda M.F., Cannarsa C., Sordellini A. (1996) Prevenzione dei DSA in Scuola Materna: ipotesi per una batteria di screening. Psichiatria dell’Infanzia e dell’Adolescenza, 63:229-245.

Mazzoncini B., Freda M.F., Penge R., Rigante L., Setaro S., Cesaroni R.., Flammini P. (1999) Apprendimento del linguaggio scritto e competenze correlate: una batteria di screening per i Disturbi di Apprendimento in I elementare. Psichiatria dell’Infanzia e dell’Adolescenza, in corso di stampa.

 

 

I

Norway

Principal investigator(s):

Ragnheidur Karlsdottir

Address: Norwegian University of Science and Technology

Department of Education

7491 Trondheim

NORWAY

E-mail-address of the contact-person: karlsdottir@svt.ntnu.no

Title of study:

Development of reading, spelling and handwriting in primary school children.

Key words:

development of reading and spelling skills

Beginning date of study (month, year): 08-88

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 06-93

Number of completed waves:

Total number of waves (at the end of the study):

Time interval between waves (average): 1 yr.

Maximum sample size: 440

Size of core sample: 407

Age range at first data collection: 7 yrs. (M=7,6)

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: yes

Other: intervention in handwriting only

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups: 2

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups: 2

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month): 2 yrs.

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

reading comprehension test (Norwegian)

 

spelling tests (Norwegian)

 

test in knowledge about letters and reading at schoolstart (7 year-olds)

 

Visual-Motor-Integration Test (Berry) given at school start

 

many different handwriting tests

 

 

 

Abstract:

The development of reading and spelling in primary school children was investigated in a longitudinal field experiment extending from the first through the fifth grade. Subjects were 704 children from 20 classrooms. Different factors assumed to influence the development in reading and spelling were investigated. The results showed that knowledge about letters and reading at the beginning of school gave high correlation to performances in reading and spelling in all grades. Factors which also influenced the development were change of classroom-teacher, absence of classroom-teacher for longer periods, and low SES of children in the class. Boys had on average poorer results on all tests than girls.

Publications:

Karlsdottir, R. (1996). Development of cursive handwriting quality. Dr. polit. Thesis. (unpublished). Department of Education, Norwegian University for Science and Technology.

Karlsdottir, R. (1996). Print-script as initial handwriting style II: effects on the development of reading and spelling. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 40, 3, 255-262.

Karlsdottir, R. (1998). Utvikling av lese- og rettskrivingsferdigheter hos grunnskolebarn i Trondheimsomradet. (Development of reading and spelling skills in 407 children in Trondheim, Norway). In A. Flem & R. Karlsdottir (Eds.). Learning strategies and skill learning. Trondheim: Tapir.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I

Norway

Principal investigator(s):

Solveig-Alma H. Lyster

Address: University of Oslo

Institute for special education

Postbox 1140, Blindern

N-0317 Oslo

NORWAY

E-mail-address of the contact-person:

Title of study:

Spelling development and metalinguistic training before school entrance: the effects of different metalinguistic training on spelling development in first grade.

Key words:

long-term effects of training spelling acquisition metalinguistic abilities cognitive and linguistic abilities

Beginning date of study (month, year):

Date of latest data collection (month, year): published 1997

Number of completed waves: 3

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 3

Time interval between waves (average):

Maximum sample size: 273

Size of core sample: 225

Age range at first data collection: 5;10 - 6;9 yrs. (10 mths. before school entrance)

Data computerized? no

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: no

Intervention study: yes

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups: 2

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups: 1

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month): 17 weeks

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month): 25-30 min./week

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

spelling regular words (part of Gjessing´s spelling test, 1958)

 

spelling irregular words

 

spelling complex regular words

 

spelling non-words

 

mathematical test (Tornes, 1968)

 

WISC-R, 3 subtests: vocabulary, similarities, digit span

IQ-measures

Standard Raven´s Progressive Matrices (Raven, 1956)

IQ-measures

pre-school measures: cognitive, linguistic and metalinguistic tasks

metalinguistic abilities

 

Abstract:

This study presents the long-term effects of two different metalinguistic intervention programs in kindergarten on spelling development. Experimental group 1 received a training program with activities that focused the children's attention on the internal sound structure of words. Experimental group 2 received a training program with activities that focused the children's attention on morphological parts of words (e.g. prefixes, suffixes). A control group received no intervention but was regularly visited by the experimenter. Results from different metalinguistic pre-tests show that children with poorly educated mothers had the lowest scores before entering the experiment. The children received training 25-30 minutes weekly for a total period of 17 weeks. At the time of the pre-test the age of the children was 5 years 10 months to 6 years 9 months. Both the group receiving metaphonological training and the group receiving metamorphological training benefited in terms of their spelling development. For the school measures, however, significant interactions between group and mother's education suggested that children of poorly educated mothers profited the most from metaphonological training and that children with highly educated mothers profited the most from metamorphological training. Factor analysis of the pre-school measures shows that different linguistic and cognitive measures seems to contribute independently to spelling development. Some of the possible linguistic processes underlying the development of spelling are affected by metalinguistic training while others are not. Implications for teaching and therapy will be discussed.

Publications:

Lyster, S.-A.H. (1995). Preventing reading and spelling failure: The effects of early intervention promoting metalinguistic abilities. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Oslo.

Lyster, S.-A.H. (1997). Spelling development and metalinguistic training before school entrance: The effects of different metalinguistic training on spelling development in first grade. In: C.K. Leong & R.M. Joshi (Eds.), Cross-language studies of learning to read and spell. Dordrecht: Kluwer.

Lyster, S.-A.H. & Tingleff, H. (1991). Ringeriksmaterialet: Kartlegging av spraklig oppmerksomhet hos barn i alderen 5-7 ar (Linguistic awareness: Assessment and intervention for the 5-7 year olds). Hoenefoss: OE.Tingleff.

As the author could not answer the questionnaire, all information was gathered from the author´s publications.

C

Norway

Principal investigator(s):

Finn Egil Toennessen

Ragnar Gees Solheim

Address: Center for Reading Research

P.O. Box 2504, Ullandhaug

N-4004 Stavanger

NORWAY

E-mail-address of the contact-person: finn-egil.tonnessen@slf.his.no

Title of study:

Development of reading abilities during primary and secondary school (10 years).

Key words:

reading acquisition decoding and word recognition

Beginning date of study (month, year): 09-99

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 09-08

Number of completed waves: 0

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 10

Time interval between waves (average): 1 yr.

Maximum sample size: 200

Size of core sample: 200

Age range at first data collection: 6 - 7 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? yes

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

Karlegging ar Leseferdigket

standardized screening-test for decoding and reading comprehension

 

 

Abstract:

Aim:

(a) To monitor the development of reading abilities through the compulsory school.

(b) To compare students + compare classes in the sample.

(c) To compare the sample with national standards.

Sample:

All children of one municipality starting school in 1999 will be included in the sample (about 200).

Results:

The data set will be made available when the data collection is completed. A report/an article will be written.

Publications:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

Poland

Principal investigator(s):

Marta Bogdanowicz

Hanna Jaklewicz

Barbara Lewandowska

Address: University of Gdansk

Institue of Psychology

Pomorska 68

PL-80-343 Gdansk

POLAND

E-mail-address of the contact-person: psymbg@univ.gda.pl

Title of study:

Difficulties in reading and writing as well as perceptual-motor function disorder and emotional disturbances (ten-year follow-up study)

Key words:

Follow-up study developmental dyslexia disturbances of perceptual-motor functions emotional problems

Beginning date of study (month, year): 09-69

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 06-79

Number of completed waves: 2

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 2

Time interval between waves (average): 10 yrs.

Maximum sample size: 30

Size of core sample: 30

Age range at first data collection: 8 - 10 yrs.

Data computerized? no

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

L.Bender-H.Santucci:Graphic Test of Perceptual Organisation

Assessment of the visual function, visual motor co-ordination, perceptual-space organisation.

A.Benton: Benton Visual Retention Test (Version C-10 seconds)

Visual memory

M.Stambak: Rhythmic Structures Reproduction Test

Auditory sequences test and auditory-motor integration

A.Muszynska J.Zarczynska: The Trials of Linguistic Functions (phonological processing abilities)

Phonological processing abilities (differentiation, analysis, synthesis)

R.Zazzo: Cards Test

Fine motor skills (speed and precision-non-graphic trial)

M.Stambak: Lines Test

Fine motor skills (speed and precision of the movement-the graphic trial)

R.Zazzo and N.Galifred-Granjon: Tasks to Examine Laterality

Model of laterality (the hand and eye and feet functional domination)

J.Piaget: The Trials of Left-Right Orientation in the Body Schema and Space

Left-right orientation in the body schema and space

J.Konopnicki: Aloud Reading Test

Assessment of correctness of reading aloud.

Standard Trials of writing (dictation, writing from the pattern and memory writing)

Assessment of correctness of writing.

 

 

Abstract:

The aim of this follow-up studies on dyslexic adults (aged from 18 to 20) having spelling disorder problems was to check if their disorders remained within a ten years period (from the first examination when they were classified as dyslexics). My studies were on the thirty adults tested by us when they were primary pupils (2nd - 4th classes). All of these pupils were dyslexic with disorder problems. The follow – up studies conducted on the same group of people after the period of 8 –10 years revealed that the difficulties in reading and writing were still present. Besides, the disorder of perceptive and motor functions causing the problems mentioned above were also present. The entire improvement of the previous developmental deficits in these fields took place only in case of very little scope of disorder (one or two functions) or when the disorder was not seriously developed. This is an Indicator of a Partial Developmental Deficit. It can be acquired by regarding the relation between the developmental delay of certain perceptual-motor functions to chronological age.

The main results of the study showed that dyslexia as well as spelling disorders problems do not disappear on their own (except for a few cases) but can become even more serious and last during the whole life. In addition it was proved that in some cases the adults (from 18 years old to 21) were on the level of six years old or even below regarding their visual and/or phonological functions. Some of them had also difficulties in the laterality as well as body schema and space concerning the left and right direction.

Apart from this, the psychological and psychiatric researches present the fact that the people from this group had additional emotional problems based on school failures lasting for a long time. On the other hand, people who belonged to a control group did not appear to suffer from such emotional problems. The members of the first group who were not subject to the remedial teaching, suffered from a complex emotional disorder in their adult lives. Their school and subsequent adult careers were much below the intellectual possibilities. Most of them did not continue their education and became only manual workers, in spite of being intelligent, sometimes even above the average level. The situation when the problems with reading and writing disappear is not totally satisfying because the emotional disorder still exists and constantly influences the personality of such people.

In this way it was proven that all of these disorders have negative and lasting influence for a long time on a dyslexic child if he or she does not receive help in time.

Publications:

Jaklewicz, H.,Bogdanowicz, M.,Mecik, D.(1975) Dysleksja i dysortografia jako przyczyny niepowodzen w nauce szkolnej. In: (Chojecka,M.,ed) Przyczyny niepowodzen szkolnych. Warszawa WsiP, 183-188.

Jaklewicz, H.(1980) Badania katamnestyczne nad dysleksja – dysortografia. Gdansk. IMM.

Jaklewicz, H., Bogdanowicz, M.(1982) Zaburzenia emocjonalne i ich wplyw na ksztaltowanie sie niektorych cech osobowosci, na podstawie badan katamnestycznych dzieci z dysleksja i dysortografia. Zeszyty Naukowe Wydzialu Humanistycznego. "Psychologia". Gdansk UG, 4, 19-28.

Lewandowska, B., Bogdanowicz, M.(1982) Trudnosci w czytaniu i pisaniu oraz zaburzenia funkcji percepcyjno-motorycznych u dzieci z dysleksja i dysortografia. Wyniki badan katamnestycznych. Zeszyty Naukowe Wydzialu Humanistycznego. "Psychologia". Gdansk. UG, 4, 5-18.

Bogdanowicz, M. (1991). Badania katamnestyczne nad rozwojem i edukacja szkolna dzieci z dysleksja i dysortografia. (Follow-up study of the developmental and educational of children with dyslexia and spelling disorder). Zeszyty Naukowe Wydzialu Humanistycznego "Psychologia", Gdansk UG, 10, 63-78.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

Poland

Principal investigator(s): Marta Bogdanowicz

Bozena Wszeborowska-Lipinska

Address: University of Gdansk

Institute of Psychology

Pomorska 68

PL-80-343 Gdansk

POLAND

E-mail-address of the contact-person: psymbg@univ.gda.pl

Title of study:

The development and school career of dyslexic children: A nine year follow-up study.

Key words:

primary school learning disabilities development of perceptual motor functions sensory-motor integration learning disabilities conformity low self-esteem neurotic personality development

Beginning date of study (month, year): 09-81

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 06-90

Number of completed waves: 3

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 3

Time interval between waves (average): 4 yrs.

Maximum sample size: 68

Size of core sample: 68

Age range at first data collection: 6 yrs.

Data computerized? no

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

L.Bender-H.Santucci:Graphic Test of Perceptual Organisation

Assessment of the visual function, visual motor co-ordination, perceptual-space organisation.

A.Benton: Benton Visual Retention Test (Version C-10 seconds)

Visual memory

M.Stambak: Rhythmic Structures Reproduction Test

Auditory sequences test and auditory-motor integration

A.Muszynska J.Zarczynska: The trials of linguistic functions (phonological processing abilities)

Phonological processing abilities (differentiation, analysis, synthesis)

J.M. Wepman in adaptation of M. Bogdanowicz: An Experimental Trial called "Chinese Language"

Phonological processing abilities (differentiation, analyses, synthesis)

M.Stambak: Lines Test

Fine motor skills (speed and precision of the movement-the graphic trial)

R.Zazzo and N.Galifred-Granjon: Tasks to Examine Laterality

Model of laterality (hand and eye and feet functional domination)

J.Piaget: The Trials of Left-Right Orientation in the Body Schema and Space

Left-right orientation in the body schema and space

J.Konopnicki: Aloud Reading Test

Assessment of correctness of reading aloud.

Standard Trials of writing (dictation, writing from the pattern and memory writing)

Assessment of correctness of writing.

Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC - R).

Estimating the intelligence and the characteristic for dyslexics profile of the test.

H. Birch-L. Belmont: Auditory-Visual Integration Test

Auditory-visual integration

E. Koppitz: The Visual-Oral Digit Span Test

Auditory-visual-motor integration

M. Monroe: Chinese Letters

Visual-auditory integration and learning

Cattell´s 14-Factorial Personality Questionnaire for adolescents

Personality

M. Bogdanowicz: The Trial I-Intra-sensory Integration,

Sensory-motor integration (intra-sensory integration)

M. Bogdanowicz: The T-Inter-sensory Integration,

Sensory-motor integration (inter-sensory integration)

Unfinished Sentences Trial

Emotional and social problems

Z. Zlab: The Trial of Rhythm Reproduction

Visual-auditory integration and learning

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abstract:

This study refers to the psychomotor development of children with specific reading and writing difficulties as well as to their school career. The psychological studies undertaken in "0", 4th and 8th grade (the end of primary school) during nine years showed that the disturbance of perceptive-motor functions as well as of sensory-motor integration maintained in children who in their "0" grade were in the subgroup of poor-reading children. Their reading and writing difficulties also remained. As far as their school career is concerned we have noticed that generally dyslexic children had worse marks than the good readers. The dyslexics had specific learning problems: Polish and foreign language, geometry, chemistry, music-reading notes, geography-orientation problems with a map, and physical activities. Moreover, the two compared groups had different attitudes towards school. That is whereas the dyslexics often played truant in order to avoid their school problems, they also had many conflicts with their teachers. As a result, they had bad marks for their school conduct. Their school marks for conduct were totally different in every class- on the lower and higher educational level. The children from a good learning group eagerly took part in out-school activities, while the dyslexics did not have time for it because they usually spent more time (about one hour more a day) for doing homework. In general, the dyslexics spent three hours a day for learning at home at the third grade and about six hours at the eight grade. They came to school much more often unprepared because of lack of time for the homework, and because of their negative attitude towards the subject and problems with understanding special part of the programme. The dyslexic children worked slower and needed much more help with their school work than their peers. Some of the children had severe problems with passing to the next class. School failures and low self-esteem influenced their further education. They chose less attractive types of schools (vocational and technical schools) than the good readers. The negative experiences conducted with nine years lasting failures during primary school strongly influenced personal development of pupils. Later self-esteem and self-image of dyslexic children were significantly decreased; the locus of control was external, the anxiety level was increased. Their fears were connected with school failures and with being rejected by adults. Because of that their plans for the future were very modest in comparison with their real intellectual potential. Good and poor readers were significantly different with regard to characteristics from the Cattell’s 14-Factorial Personality Questionnaire for Adolescents. According to this, the dyslexic children were realistic, adapted to overcome obstacles but less ambitious and creative. They expected support from their peers to compensate their bad relations with adults (teachers, parents). To get that support, they had to be more comfortable, more dependent on group opinion, they had to decrease their aspiration level. The results indicated higher levels of conformity, lack of guilty feelings, easy-going, which helped them to adapt to the stressful situations in school-life. Their long-lasting school failures seriously limited their individualism and creativity, looking for perspectives. According to Polish phrase ‘it clipped their wings’ just at the period of childhood. Psychosomatic symptoms connected with school-anxiety were characteristic for both groups. Polish school atmosphere may be blamed for it. In a group of poor readers, these symptoms appeared only at school or just before going to school and they became more severe in upper grades. In comparison to good readers, only dyslexics had the feeling of ‘empty head’ which appeared in the moment of being asked by a teacher. The research suggest the neurotic personal development of many dyslexics pupils.

Publications:

Bogdanowicz M.: Nine Years Follow-up Study of Dyslexic Children. The First All-Greek Congress on Special Education. Ateny 1992. Ionios School, s.1-9.

Bogdanowicz M., Wszeborowska- Lipinska B.: Rozwoj psychomotoryczny, kariera szkolna i osobowosc modziezy dyslektycznej. "Scholasticus" 1992, nr1,s.35-39.

Wszeborowska - Lipinska B.,Bogdanowicz M.: Development, School Career and Personality of Dyslexic Children - Nine Years Follow - up Study. "Polish Quarterly of Developmental Psychology". 1995, nr 1, s. 51-56.

 

 

 

C

Poland

Principal investigator(s): Marta Bogdanowicz

Bozena Wszeborowska-Lipinska

Address: University of Gdansk

Institue of Psychology

Pomorska 68

PL-80-343 Gdansk

POLAND

E-mail-address of the contact-person: psymbg@univ.gda.pl

Title of study:

Follow-up study of adolescents with specific difficulties in reading and writing.

Key words:

developmental dyslexia psychomotor development of adolescents school achievement personality of dyslexic adults

Beginning date of study (month, year): 09-85

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 06-93

Number of completed waves: 2

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 2

Time interval between waves (average): 8 yrs.

Maximum sample size: 251

Size of core sample: 100 dyslexics and 30 non-dyslexics

Age range at first data collection: 19yrs.

Data computerized? no

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

L. Bender-H. Santucci: Graphic Test of Perceptual Organisation

Assessment of the visual function, visual motor co-ordination, perceptual-space organisation.

A.Benton: Benton Visual Retention Test (Version C-10 seconds)

Visual memory

J.M. Wepman in adaptation of M. Bogdanowicz: An Experimental Trial called "Chinese Language"

Phonological processing abilities (differentiation, analyses, synthesis)

J.Kostrzewski: The trials of linguistic functions (phonological processing abilities)

Phonological processing abilities (differentiation, analyses, synthesis)

R.Zazzo: Cards Test

Fine motor skills (speed and precision-non-graphic trial)

M.Stambak: Lines Test

Fine motor skills (speed and precision of the movement-the graphic trial)

R.Zazzo and N.Galifred-Granjon: Tasks to Examine Laterality

Model of laterality (hand and eye and feet functional domination)

J.Konopnicki: Aloud Reading Test

Assessment of the correctness of reading aloud.

Standard Trials of writing (dictation, writing from the pattern and memory writing)

Assessment of the correctness of the writing.

Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale :Coding Test and Digit Test.

Estimating the intelligence and the characteristic for dyslexics profile of the test.

16-Factor Cattell Personality Questionnaire

Assessment of personality

Gough Adjectives Test

Assessment of personality

The interview

Assessment of personality and information about students´ life, education, career plans.

 

 

Abstract:

The purpose of this follow-up studies was to find out whether the dyslexic adolescents having specific difficulties in reading and writing at the end of the secondary school, who did not undergo any professional therapy, still have disturbances in development of perceptual and motor functions .

They have been questioned in the second stage (about 8 years later on) about their schools or professional careers as well as their interests, plans for future, reasons of their difficulties in reading and writing and occurrence of their emotional disturbances. As a main result we observed that the disturbances of perceptual and motor functions as well as difficulties in spelling and, less frequently in reading, did remain. On average, the dyslexics repeated a year at secondary school and change schools much more often than their peers.

The Intelligence Scale (Wechsler-Bellevue) showed distinctly lower results in Coding, Picture Completion and Digit Span Subtest. In spite of being intelligent above the average level, the examined individuals’ school careers were negatively influenced by their difficulties in reading and writing. Moreover, these difficulties had an influence on their choice of professions, interests and plans for future. Out of 100 students 78 continued studies (universities and technical colleges), 19 people worked and 3 are still unemployed. The dyslexics chose mainly careers connected with engineering (33%), economics (20%), arts (12%), law (9%) and medicine (7%). This finding differed from the results of our previous research, which revealed that such an attempt was made only by 12% of the dyslexic pupils finishing primary schools. Only part of this group wanted to continue learning at secondary school (Bogdanowicz, Jaklewicz 1982). The end of primary school period constitutes a very important, critical moment for the future of the dyslexic pupils: education, vocational careers and their further personal life. The distribution of the interests in both groups was remarkably different. The dyslexics preferred tourism, arts and technology; their peers more often showed interest in humanities and learning foreign languages. These differences resulted from difficulties in reading and writing. Examination of the personality revealed a stronger need for achievement, for domination, the autonomy and the level of self-confidence, better realism and social skills, ego-power, stronger enthusiasm and willingness of dyslexics compared with the control group. This indicates that the group participating in our examination was a selective one. It consisted of pupils who went through primary school successfully and continued secondary school because of their very good intellectual level, the help of the educated parents and support of city environment.

Publications:

Jaklewicz, H.(1980) Badania katamnestyczne nad dysleksja – dysortografia. Gdansk. IMM

Jaklewicz, H., Bogdanowicz, M.(1982) Zaburzenia emocjonalne i ich wpływ na kształtowanie się niektorych cech osobowości, na podstawie badań katamnestycznych dzieci z dysleksją i dysortografią. Zeszyty Naukowe Wydziału Humanistycznego. "Psychologia". Gdańsk UG, 4, 19-28.

Bogdanowicz, M. (1991). Badania katamnestyczne nad rozwojem i edukacja szkolna dzieci z dysleksja i dysortografia. Zeszyty Naukowe Wydziału Humanistycznego "Psychologia", Gdansk UG, 10, 63-78.

Bogdanowicz, M., Wszeborowska – Lipińska, B.(1992) Rozwoj psychomotoryczny, kariera szkolna i osobowość młodzieży dyslektycznej. Scholasticus,1,35-39.

Bogdanowicz, M., Wszeborowska – Lipińska, B.(1993) Follow - up Study of Adolescents with Specific Difficulties in Reading and Writing. Journal of Philosophy of Medicine and Medical Psychology, 1, 96.

Bogdanowicz, M., Wszeborowska – Lipińska, B.(1995) Follow - up di adolescenti con difficolta specifiche nella lettura e nella scrittura. International Journal of Adolescentology, 1, 89 - 101.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

Poland

Principal investigator(s):

Hanna Jaklewicz

Marta Bogdanowicz

Danuta Mecik

Address: University of Gdansk

Institute of Psychology

Pomorska 68

PL-80-343 Gdansk

POLAND

E-mail-address of the contact-person: psymbg@univ.gda.pl

Title of study:

Dyslexia and dysorthography as the reasons of difficulties in learning at school.

Key words:

follow-up study primary school learning disabilities emotional problems

Beginning date of study (month, year): 09-68

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 06-71

Number of completed waves: 2

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 2

Time interval between waves (average): 2,5 yrs.

Maximum sample size: 51

Size of core sample: 51

Age range at first data collection: 10 - 12 yrs.

Data computerized? no

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

L.Bender-H.Santucci:Graphic Test of Perceptual Organisation

Assessment of the visual function, visual motor co-ordination, perceptual-space organisation.

A.Benton: Benton Visual Retention Test (Version C-10 seconds)

Visual memory

M.Stambak: Rhythmic Structures Reproduction Test

Auditory sequences test and auditory-motor integration

A.Muszynska J.Zarczynska: The trials of linguistic functions (phonological processing abilities)

Phonological processing abilities (differentiation, analysis, synthesis)

R.Zazzo: Cards Test

Fine motor skills (speed and precision-non-graphic trial)

M.Stambak: Lines Test

Fine motor skills (speed and precision of the movement-the graphic trial)

R.Zazzo and N.Galifred-Granjon: Tasks to Examine Laterality

Model of laterality (the hand and eye and feet functional domination)

J.Piaget: The Trials of Left-Right Orientation in the Body Schema and Space

Left-right orientation in the body schema and space

J.Konopnicki: Aloud Reading Test

Assessment of correctness of reading aloud.

Standard Trials of writing (dictation, writing from the pattern and memory writing)

Assessment of correctness of writing.

 

 

Abstract:

The aim of this follow-up study was to check if children classified as dyslexics in the first months of the 4th class still had difficulties in reading and spelling at the end of the primary school period. Posttests were conducted when children attending 6th class. During the study period they were not subject to any therapy. The findings show that these pupils still had difficulties in reading (82,6%) and spelling (89,1%). These difficulties resulted in general school problem regardless of their good intellectual development (80,5%). In addition, many of these children suffered from emotional disorders which were caused by the difficult situation at school.

Publications:

Jaklewicz, H.,Bogdanowicz, M.,Mecik, D.(1975) Dysleksja i dysortografia jako przyczyny niepowodzen w nauce szkolnej. In: (Chojecka,M.,ed) Przyczyny niepowodzen szkolnych. Warszawa WsiP, 183-188.

Bogdanowicz, M. (1991). Badania katamnestyczne nad rozwojem i edukacja szkolna dzieci z dysleksja i dysortografia. (Follow-up study of the developmental and educational of children with dyslexia and spelling disorder). Zeszyty Naukowe "Psychologia", Uniwersytet Gdanski, 10, 63-78.

 

 

 

 

 

C

Poland

Principal investigator(s):

Grazyna Krasowicz-Kupis

Marta Bogdanowicz

Bozydar Kaczmarek

Peter Bryant

Address: Maria Curie Sklodowska University

Instytut Psychologii UMCS

Plac Litewski 5

20-080 Lublin

POLAND

E-mail-address of the contact-person: GKRASOW@sokrates.umcs.lublin.pl

Title of study:

Linguistic awareness and reading and spelling acquisition in Polish children of ages 6 to 8.

Key words:

reading acquisition spelling acquisition linguistic awareness phonological awareness syntactic awareness metalinguistic abilities

Beginning date of study (month, year): 09-94

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 05-97

Number of completed waves: 5

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 5

Time interval between waves (average): 8 mths.

Maximum sample size: 367

Size of core sample: 147

Age range at first data collection: 6;6 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

syllable analysis (separating syllables in the word)

phonological awareness on syllabic level

syllable blending (synthesis of syllables heard in right order)

phonological awareness on syllabic level

syllable deletion task (the child has to remove the first or the last syllable in the word)

phonological awareness on syllabic level

rhyme oddity test

phonological awareness on intrasyllabic level

alliteration oddity test

phonological awareness on intrasyllabic level

rhyme production test

phonological awareness on intrasyllabic level

alliteration production test

phonological awareness on intrasyllabic level

phoneme discrimination task

phonological awareness on phonemic level

phoneme analysis task

phonological awareness on phonemic level

phoneme blending task

phonological awareness on phonemic level

phoneme deletion task

phonological awareness on phonemic level

spoonerism task

phonological awareness on phonemic level

sentence correction - endings

morpho-syntactic awareness

sentence judgement task

morpho-syntactic awareness

sentence creating (on the base of presented words)

morpho-syntactic awareness

sentence correction - putting in lacking words

morpho-syntactic awareness

word reading task: "Test do badania techniki glosnego czytania"

speed and accuracy of decoding words

test of pseudo-word reading

speed and accuracy of pseudowords decoding

text reading

speed and accuracy of text reading

reading understanding task (the story with word to choose in some places)

understanding of reading text

Dictation

accuracy of spelling

spelling from memory

accuracy of spelling

text copying

accuracy of spelling

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abstract:

The main aims of the research were:

This research embraced children at the ages of 6 - 8. The first examination was carried out in kindergarten (a group of 6-year-olds), and the last in the second semester of 2nd class. The size of the sample was 367 in the first assessment and 167 in the last one. Children came from three environments: a big city, a medium city, and a small town. The controlled variables were: gender, parents´ education, intellectual development and cognitive abilities according to WISC-R. The main independent variable was linguistic awareness, that is phonological and syntactical awareness assessed by specially prepared methods. The main dependent variables were the reading and spelling skills in accordance with the definition accepted.

We confirmed the importance of children´s phonological skills in the early stages of reading and spelling. Generally much more relations were found for reading. This phonological connection is as important in learning to read in Polish as in several other languages, such as English. All the phonological scores predicted reading in the short term, even after quite stringent controls for differences in extraneous variables such as intelligence. The stronger predictors of reading in the long term were the phoneme tasks. The syllable scores were also connected to reading.

The role of syntactic awareness was not similarly strong. Some connections between syntactic skill measures were found for text reading and reading understanding.

Publications:

Krasowicz, G. & Bogdanowicz, M. (1997). Wybrane aspekty umiejetnosci metajezykowych dzieci 6-letnich i dynamika ich zmian w klasie "0". Kwartalnik Polskiej Psychologii Rozwojowej, 3-4.

Krasowicz, G. (1999). Rozwoj metajezykowy a umiejetnosc czytania u dzieci 6-9 letnich. Wydawnictwo UMCS, Lublin.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

Poland

Principal investigator(s):

Krystyna Sochacka

Grazyna Krasowicz

 

Address: University in Bialystok

Faculty of Teacher Education and Psychology

Swierkowa 20

15-328 Bialystok

POLAND

E-mail-address of the contact-person: sochkr40@CKSR.ac.bialystok.pl

Title of study:

The process of the reading acquisition in Polish children in the early period of learning to read.

Key words:

reading acquisition language abilities phonological processing visual information processing cognitive and linguistic abilities

Beginning date of study (month, year): 02-98

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 12-99

Number of completed waves: 4

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 7

Time interval between waves (average): 2 mths. (1st year), 4 mths. (2nd year)

Maximum sample size: 95

Size of core sample:

Age range at first data collection: 6;1 - 7;1

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? yes

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

single regular word reading (one, two and three syllable words), sentences and text reading

effectiveness of reading: speed, adequacy, understanding the types of errors in reading

single pseudowords (one, two and three syllables) and pseudoword´s text reading

effectiveness of reading: speed, adequacy, the types of errors in reading

WISC-R

intellectual abilities

Benton Visual Retention Test

visual memory

Ake W. Edfeldt (Skandinawshe Testfoerlaget Sztokholm)

visual (skills) perception

Andre Rey (15 words test)

auditory, verbal memory

Grazyna Krasowicz ZETOTEST

phonological awareness

 

 

Abstract:

The main purpose of the present study is the description of reading skill development in children during the first two years of schooling. As a theoretical basis, Uta Frith’s model was adopted. That model assumed that the reading development covers three stages – logographic, alphabetic and orthographic, and that sequence of the stages, as well as their features, are universal in different languages. In fact Frith’s model was created on the base on the several studies conducted on English-speaking children.

We tried to describe development of reading strategies in Polish-speaking children during the first two years of schooling. The results let us answer the question concerning the possibilities to adopt Frith’s model for Polish language.

The main research problems concern:

1. The features of reading development in children aged 6 to 8,

- does the analysis of reading process indicate the characteristic strategy of reading,

- does that strategy change depending on the age of children,

- can we observe characteristic stages in the reading acquisition on the base of reading process analysis.

2. Individual differences among children regarding reading strategies during the acquisition of this skill and their determinants.

The explanation of the problems mentioned above is very important for:

- the preparing more effective methods of teaching to read;

- the prevention of reading problems and disorders;

- more effective therapy of reading difficulties.

The longitudinal study was conducted on a homogeneous group of 100 children in the first two years of formal learning to read. Different methods were used to assess reading skills (single, regular word reading (one, two and three syllable words), sentence and text reading). Reading material was presented in two versions – as words and pseudowords. The effectiveness of reading (speed, adequacy, understanding) was assessed as well as the types of errors in reading. Some other important cognitive skills were controlled as well – intellectual abilities, visual skills, visual and verbal memory etc.

Publications:

 

 

 

 

 

I

Portugal

Principal investigator(s):

Luz Cary

Arlette Verhaeghe

Helena Marchand

Address: Alameda da Universidade

Faculdade de Psicologia e de Ciencias da Educacao

1600 - Lisboa

PORTUGAL

E-mail-address of the contact-person: nop56381@mail.telepac.pt

Title of study:

Short and long-lasting effects of two phoneme training programs developed in kindergarten in the class-room context.

Key words:

Phonological training phonological awareness

Beginning date of study (month, year): 11-96

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 06-98

Number of completed waves: 6

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 6

Time interval between waves (average): approx. 4 mths.

Maximum sample size: 66

Size of core sample: 46

Age range at first data collection: 4;10 - 5;9 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? yes

Type of study:

Correlation study: no

Intervention study: yes

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups: 2

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups: 1

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month): 4 mths.

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month): 2,5 hrs./week

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

Raven (CPM), one wave only

1st - 5th test: Pre-test (Dec. 96)

Rime detection (odd-one-out test without visual support, 3 items per trial)

 

Initial phoneme detection (odd-one-out test without visual support, 3 items per trial)

 

End phoneme detection

 

Letter knowledge

 

Initial phoneme identification

6th & 7th test: Post-test (June 97)

Initial phoneme deletion in a CV context (e.g. ponte - onte)

 

Initial phoneme deletion in a CCV context (e.g. placa - laca)

8th - 10th test: Transfer tests (Oct. 97)

Vowel substitution (e.g. nariz - naraz)

 

Phoneme reversal (e.g. sol - los)

 

Content word reading (COST "foundation level assessment")

11th - 14th test: Reading accuracy (June 1998)

Functor word reading (COST "foundation level assessment")

 

Monosyllabic pseudoword reading (COST "foundation level assessment")

 

Bisyllabic pseudoword reading (COST "foundation level assessment")

 

Monosyllabic pseudoword writing (COST "foundation level assessment")

15th & 16th test: Writing accuracy (June 98)

Bisyllabic pseudoword writing (COST "foundation level assessment")

 

 

 

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to examine whether: 1) two different phoneme training programs administered to kindergarteners in the classroom context, by previously trained teachers, had differential effects on phoneme awareness, measured four months later; 2) the two kinds of phonemic training have steady effects, as measured by phoneme manipulation tasks given when children enter Grade 1, but before reading instruction (transfer tests); and 3) these effects would extend to reading and spelling accuracy examined at the end of Grade 1.

The schools where the study was carried out were analogous in terms of staff’s instruction, teaching methods, number of children per classroom (around 30) and social background.

Three groups of kindergarteners (n = 66, age range 58 - 69 months) with equivalent intelligence-level were pre- and post-tested in a set of measures designed to evaluate phoneme awareness.

Between pre- and post-test, during four months, two of the groups had daily sessions of thirty minutes filled with activities involving songs, tang-twisters and games, designed to develop awareness of /l/, /v/, /t/ and /b/ in initial and non-initial position. One group, EG1, received phonemic training only; a second group, EG2, received identical training plus incidental introduction of the letter names corresponding to the trained phonemes; a third untrained group (CG) was also included.

Performance progress between pre- and post-test only occurred for the trained groups (EG1 and EG2), but specific effects of training were not found.

A similar pattern emerged from analysis of performance in the transfer tests. Both EG1 and EG2 performed significantly better than the CG, but didn’t differ from each other.

However, specific effects of training appear in reading and writing ability measured at the end of Grade 1: accuracy in pseudo word reading and spelling is clearly better in EG2, as shown by the percentage of children who performed at ceiling across these tasks: 53% for EG2, 22% and 17% for EG1 and CG, respectively.

Publications:

No publication until this moment

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

Portugal

Principal investigator(s):

Antonio Castro Fonseca

Jose Augusto Silva Rebelo

Address:

Faculdade de Psicologia e de Ciencias da educacao

Rua do Colegio Novo

3000-115 Coimbra

PORTUGAL

E-mail-address of the contact-person: srebelo@ei.ue.pt

Title of study:

1992/93: Conduct problems and learning disabilities. 1995/96: Emotional disorders in children and adolescents: An epidemiological and experimental study.

Key words:

Epidemiological study emotional problems reading and spelling conduct problems intelligence learning disabilities

Beginning date of study (month, year): 1992/1993

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 1998

Number of completed waves: 2

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 3

Time interval between waves (average): 4 yrs. (betw. 1st & 2nd); 2 yrs. (betw. 2nd & 3rd)

Maximum sample size: 445

Size of core sample: 431

Age range at first data collection: 7;5 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? yes

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

CBCL (Achenbach, 1991)

screening for general psychopathology

TRF (Achenbach, 1991)

screening for general psychopathology

Conners-2[?] (Goyette et al., 1989)

conduct problems in the classroom

self-report (Loeber et al., 1989)

conduct problems referred by the pupil (self)

Escala Cofectiva de Nivel Intelectual (Miranda, 1983)

intelligence measurement

Prova de Leitura

reading achievement

Ditado

spelling problems detection

Prova de Matematica

maths achievement

Depression scale for children (Birleson, 1981)

evaluation of depression symptoms

Revised Manifest Anxiety Scale for Children (Reynolds & Richmond, 1978)

screening for manifest anxiety

Scale for Anxiety for Children (Spence, 1997)

screening for general anxiety

Youth Self-Report (Achenbach, 1991)

screening for general psychopathology referred by the adolescents

 

 

Abstract:

In the year 92/93 we began an epidemiological longitudinal study on conduct problems and learning disabilities, where in the first phase of the study a large sample of the Portuguese school population (pupils from the 2nd, 4th and 6th grade) was assessed. A selected subsample of the same population composed by children with conduct and learning problems and a control group was also assessed by measures of intelligence, school achievement, scales for parents and teachers, reading, spelling and maths tests, and an antisocial self-report measure. Learning problems were initially identified on the basis of teachers and parents information (one question each).

Four years later, in 95/96, the children, who were in the 2nd year of the elementary school in the year 92/93 were examined again through measures of emotional problems and school achievement, which included reading, spelling and mathematics, a sample constituted by 445 pupils. 79 of them had already been examined in time 1 on reading, spelling and mathematics. We plan to continue to follow-up all the children, who in time 1 were in the 2nd grade (N=445) and who were assessed in time 2 (N=431).

This study aims to establish normative data on which to base cut-off points for discriminating between the normal and clinical group, to determine comorbility rates and to characterize children with and without learning disabilities.

The available results of the study indicate a relationship between some aspects of behaviour problems and emotional disorders with learning difficulties. Yet the follow-up of the study will show if these symptoms are persistent through the years.

Publications:

Revista Portuguesa de Pedagogia, 29 (3), 1995.

Psychologica, 19, 1998.

C

Portugal

Principal investigator(s):

Ana Paula Vale

Address: Universidade de Tras-os-montes e Alto Douro

Departamento de Ciencias da Educacao

Apartado 200

5001 Vila Real Codex

PORTUGAL

E-mail-address of the contact-person: pvale@utad.pt

Title of study:

Detection and analysis of intrasyllabic units before and after reading acquisition: relationship to reading and spelling performances.

Key words:

phonological sensitivity phonological analysis reading spelling

Beginning date of study (month, year): 06-97

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 06-98

Number of completed waves: 3

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 3

Time interval between waves (average): 6 mths.

Maximum sample size: 25

Size of core sample: 25

Age range at first data collection: 5;6 - 6;5 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

same-different unit task

to assess phonological sensitivity

common unit task

to assess explicit phonological awareness

reading and writing list of words

to assess reading and spelling ability

 

 

Abstract:

Having established the link between phonological awareness and alphabetic reading and spelling acquisition, current research stresses the need of clarifying two points: the unit size that first emerges having a functional level value to literacy acquisition and the role of explicit instruction for this process. To answer these two complex questions it seems necessary to examine how children represent the different phonological levels of the syllabic structure before and after literacy onset.

The procedures used to assess young children´s phonological awareness usually tries to determine which unit is better represented. When detection tasks are used kindergarten children have more success with large units such as rime. When segmentation or manipulation is required children do better with small units such as phonemes. These opposing tendencies were examined by comparing performances on a pair word detection task (Same-Different Task) and a pair word analysis task (Common Unit Task) relying upon the same five linguistic units, onset, body, rime, peak and coda.

At the end of kindergarten 25 non-reading children with mean age of 6.0 (age range 5;6 – 6;5) were administered two phonological tasks. The same tasks were given 5 months later, after the beginning of school. At the end of first grade children were tested on reading and spelling ability. The school attended by these children used a phonics based approach to literacy instruction.

Results indicate that syllabic structure representation depends on the interaction between unit size and task demands. Although rime units were better detected than phonemes, phonemes were better manipulated than rime units. This pattern of performance was displayed even in kindergarten regardless of the fact that by that time children had not been oriented to any strategy of processing written language.

The findings suggest that the phoneme is probably the most suitable linguistic unit to initiate phonological analysis and that alphabetic instruction make explicit some underlying knowledge about analysis and phonemes. Besides, the results are consistent with the view that a great share of alphabetic acquisition rely upon phoneme awareness.

Publications:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I

Spain

Principal investigator(s):

Mikel Asensio

Antonio Santos

Address: Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria Cantoblanco

Facultad de Psicologia, Dpto. De Psicologia Basica

28049-Madrid

SPAIN

E-mail-address of the contact-person: asensio@ccuam3.sdi.uam.es

Title of study:

Metaphonological abilities training in reading learning with five year old children.

Key words:

reading acquisition reading instruction phonological abilities metalinguistic abilities

Beginning date of study (month, year): 10-90

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 10-92

Number of completed waves: 3

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 3

Time interval between waves (average): 1 yr.

Maximum sample size: 80

Size of core sample: 59

Age range at first data collection: 4;9 - 5;9

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? yes

Type of study:

Correlation study: no

Intervention study: yes

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups: 1

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups: 1

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month): 4,5 mths.

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month): 3 sessions / week, 25 minutes each (total amount of intervention: 25*38=15,8 hrs.)

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

PEREL (Maldonado, Sebastian & Soto)

word decoding

DEC (original)

word decoding

RIMA (original)

rime ability

CONSI (original)

syllabic count ability

CONFO (original)

phonetic count ability

TISI (original)

syllabic identification

TIFO (original)

phonetic identification

TOSI (original)

syllabic manipulation

TOFO (original)

phonetic manipulation

Test G Factor (Cattell & Cattell)

IQ

 

 

Abstract:

The main objective was to check the influence of a training program on metaphonological abilities with five year old children. We also checked the influence on reading learning one and two years later. We evaluated 80 children in three different classes from a public school with a medium-low socio-economic level, in a middle-size town (about 50.000 people near Madrid). We divided each three classes randomly into two groups: experimental and control. We excluded pupils who got very low scores in the IQ test and those showing behavioural or language problems. Also some children were lost because they changed school. Finally, we selected 59 students (29 for the experimental group and 30 for the control group). We checked all students with a word-decoding-test (PEREL) at the beginning and at the end of treatment, and at the beginning of the first and the second course of reading learning. Also, the evaluation included eight other tasks about phonological abilities, all of them originals: DEC (word decoding), RIMA (rime ability), CONSI (syllabic count ability), CONFO (phonetic count ability), TISI (syllabic identification), TIFO (phonetic identification), TOSI (syllabic manipulation), and TOFO (phonetic manipulation). In addition we tested the IQ with the classical Factor G Test by Cattell & Cattell, and we asked the teachers about possible behavioural and language problems in the classroom. The intervention sessions were developed like regular classes with the whole group. The experimental group treatment was a training in metaphonological abilities (lexical, syllabics and segmental abilities without graphemic-phonemic rules teaching). The control group treatment was a training program about non-linguistic abilities, such as perception, motor skills, attention, etc. The experimental group tended to show better results than the control group. However, we didn't find significant statistical differences among them, except in rime. The experimental group, who received the treatment, didn't present facilitation in reading learning at the end of the first level, even at the end of the second level.

Publications:

Santos Barba, Antonio (1996). Reading Learning: Processes involved and intervention programs. Ph.D.Dissertation, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid. (directed by Mikel Asensio)

no other publications yet, we are preparing a book about that

 

 

C

Spain

Principal investigator(s): Mikel Asensio

Antonio Santos

Address: Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria Cantoblanco

Facultad de Psicologia, Dpto. De Psicologia Basica

28049-Madrid

SPAIN

E-mail-address of the contact-person: asensio@ccuam3.sdi.uam.es

Title of study:

Metaphonological abilities as index in posterior reading learning.

Key words:

reading acquisition phonological abilities metalinguistic abilities

Beginning date of study (month, year): 10-90

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 10-92

Number of completed waves: 3

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 3

Time interval between waves (average): 1 yr.

Maximum sample size: 80

Size of core sample: 28

Age range at first data collection: 4;9 - 5;9

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? yes

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

PEREL (Maldonado, Sebastian & Soto)

word decoding

DEC (original)

word decoding

RIMA (original)

rime ability

CONSI (original)

syllabic count ability

CONFO (original)

phonetic count ability

TISI (original)

syllabic identification

TIFO (original)

phonetic identification

TOSI (original)

syllabic manipulation

TOFO (original)

phonetic manipulation

Test G Factor (Cattell & Cattell)

IQ

 

 

Abstract:

The main objective was to check if the level on metaphonological abilities are related by the posterior reading learning, testing by alphabetic encoding skills. We evaluated 80 children in three different classes from a public school with a medium-low socio-economic level, in a middle-size town (about 50.000 people near to Madrid). We divided each three classes randomly into two groups: experimental and control. We excluded the pupils whom got very low scores in the IQ test or they presented behavioural or language problems. Also some of them changed the school. Finally, we selected 28 students (we put out the 29 student, who received a training program). We checked all students with a word-decoding-test (PEREL) at the beginning and the end of treatment, and at the beginning of the first and the second course of reading learning. Also, the evaluation included eight other tasks about phonological abilities, all of them originals: DEC (word decoding), RIMA (rime ability), CONSI (syllabic count ability), CONFO (phonetic count ability), TISI (syllabic identification), TIFO (phonetic identification), TOSI (syllabic manipulation), and TOFO (phonetic manipulation). In addition we tested the IQ with the classical Factor G Test by Cattell & Cattell, and we asked the teachers for possible behavioural and language problems in the classroom. As a main result, syllabic and phonemic identification evaluated at the beginning of the five years old course was accompanied by a higher reading level (decoding scores) in both first and second courses. Syllabic counting ability was related to reading scores in first level but not on the second level. At the beginning of the first course the relationship was higher between metaphonological abilities and reading than on second course. There were significant statistical correlation between alphabetical decoding scores and syllabic and phonemic identification, and syllabic and phonemic omission.

Publications:

Santos Barba, Antonio (1996). Reading Learning: Processes involved and intervention programs. Ph.D.Dissertation, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid. (directed by Mikel Asensio)

no other publications yet, we are preparing a book about that

 

 

 

 

I

Spain

Principal investigator(s):

Sylvia Defior

Pio Tudela

Address: Facultad de Psicologia.

18071 Granada

SPAIN

E-mail-address of the contact-person: sdefior@goliat.ugr.es

Title of study:

A study of the influence of phonological training on the initial acquisition of literacy.

Key words:

Phonological training reading acquisition writing acquisition phonological abilities literacy training

Beginning date of study (month, year): 09-89

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 05-91

Number of completed waves: 5

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 5

Time interval between waves (average): 3 mths. and 1 yr. for the last one

Maximum sample size: 60

Size of core sample: 55

Age range at first data collection: 5;1 - 6;9 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? yes

Type of study:

Correlation study: no

Intervention study: yes

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups: 4

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups: 1

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month): 6 mths., 1 session/week

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month): 90 min., 1 workshop week

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

IQ (Raven)

Matching children

Vocabulary (Nieto)

Matching children

Phoneme classification (initial and first sound)

Matching children

Reading and writing abilities

Matching children

Reading test (Cabrera) (containing several scales of decoding and comprehension)

Post treatment evaluation

Writing test

Post treatment evaluation

Mathematics test

Post treatment evaluation

Teachers´ assessment of reading and writing

Post treatment evaluation

 

Abstract:

The aim of our study was to determine the effect of phonological abilities training upon the acquisition of reading and writing of Spanish language during the first year of primary school. An experimental design, with five groups of subjects matched by age, sex, IQ, phonological abilities and reading and writing level was used. Every group received twenty training sessions, over a period of six months. Four groups had different training procedures depending upon the type of task used (phoneme versus concept discrimination) and the way that the task was carried out (using or not using manipulative materials: letters and written words). The fifth group served as control. Post training measures were taken in reading, writing, and mathematics, besides the teacher's estimated scores, four times: after 10 sessions of training, immediately after the end of the training sessions, two months later, and one year later, when children were at the end of second year of primary school. Significant effects on both reading (mainly on decoding) and writing measures were obtained for the group trained on phonological activities using manipulative materials at the end of the training and lasted two months later but they disappeared at the end of second grade. The effects were reliable for the two tests. Given the experimental nature of our research, the results show not only that the phonological training with simultaneous teaching of the corresponding letter has a positive influence on initial reading and writing acquisition in Spanish but also that this influence is a causal one. This effect was specific to the reading and writing tests but did not show up for the mathematics test. Training in conceptual tasks did not produce differential effects. Our results confirm, for the Spanish language, the role of phonological abilities at the very early phase of literacy acquisition pointing out the similarities between alphabetic systems despite the differences in phonological structure. Our results also throw some light on the teaching methods debate, favouring the phonetic approach.

Publications:

Defior, S. (1996). La conciencia fonologica y su relacion con la lectura. Infancia & Aprendizaje, 78, 53-75.

Defior, S., & Tudela, P. (1994). Effect of phonological training on reading and writing acquisition. Reading & Writing. An Interdisciplinary Journal, 6, 299 - 320.

C

Spain

Principal investigator(s):

Cristina Diez

Pilar Pardo

Fernando Lara

Sose S. Anula

Address:

Facultad de Psicologia. U.N.E.D.

Ciudad Universitaria s.n.

28040 Madrid

SPAIN

E-mail-address of the contact-person: ppardo@psi.uned.es

Title of study:

Developing of discursive strategies to learn to write.

Key words:

Acquisition of literacy

Beginning date of study (month, year): 09-96

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 06-98 (but still collecting data)

Number of completed waves: 6

Total number of waves (at the end of the study):

Time interval between waves (average): 3 mths.

Maximum sample size: 21

Size of core sample: 21

Age range at first data collection: 2;10 - 5;5 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? yes

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

Opening interview (Ferreiro & Teberosky, 1979)

student ordinal classification

 

 

Abstract:

The objective of this investigation is to analyse the ways a teacher uses to stimulate communication and cooperation skills among pupils in read-and-write learning situations in the classroom and to explain how children adopt the discursive strategies that a teacher shows them and requests them to learn in group writing tasks. Throughout two school years (3-4, 4-5), 72 working situations have been examined in which children cooperated in groups of three in order to carry out a writing task. To that end, we have developed two dimensions of analysis, which can be identified with the two main functions of speech as a psychosocial tool of thinking: (1) the communication function, which focuses on the contents promotion dimension of analysis, and (2) the intellectual function, centered in the contents management dimension of analysis. Within the first dimension, we record how teacher and pupils encourage the developing of ideas in the course of interaction. Within the second dimension, we record the way participants instrumentalize their psychic resources and the subject matter in order to perform writing tasks. Through this category system we have observed that the teacher mainly displays a non- directive way of education, prompting children’s participation through strategies such as guidance (asking for information and giving clues at the same time), contribution (giving information to improve task performance), return (repeating, rephrasing or amplifying information produced by the child) and production requests (asking open questions). It is also noted how the teacher adapts to the level of difficulty which different tasks impose on the children. Through these and other strategies we have detected, we have shown the way a teacher solves interaction situations with pupils in the performance of read-and-write tasks. About children participation, the study has allowed to make the process visible through which children gradually increase their verbalisations with regard to the task, and gradually specialize the various discursive strategies so as to make progress in their writing proficiency. It has been found that, with respect to the dimension of contents promotion, children become independent from requests and from the teacher’s presence to use the strategies, and, in relation to the dimension of contents management, they need to rely less and less on the discursive externalization of some of the strategies they already master.

Publications:

Diez, C., Pardo, P., Lara, F. &Anula, J. (1998) La interaccion en el inicio de la lectoescritura. Investigacion educativa. CIDE (1996/98). MEC. Spain

Diez, C., Lara, F., Pardo, P.& Anula, J. (1998) Escribiendo juntos en Educacion Infantil. 4 Congreso Mundial de Educacion Infantil. Madrid, Diciembre, 1998.

Diez, C., Anula, J., Pardo, P. &Lara, F. Cuentaselo a tus companeros. Las estrategias no directivas de una maestra. 4 Congreso Mundial de Educacion Infantil. Madrid, Diciembre, 1998.

Pardo, P., Diez, C., Anula, J. & Lara, F. (1999). A teacher’s strategies for developing interaction of children group read-and-write tasks. Second Conference Improvement of Learning &Teaching of Language & literature. Amsterdam July, 1999.

Diez, C., Anula, J., Pardo, P. & Lara, F. (1999). Developing of discursive strategies to learn to write. Second Conference Improvement of Learning &Teaching of Language & literature. Amsterdam July, 1999.

 

 

 

 

 

 

I

Spain

Principal investigator(s):

Jose Escoriza

Address: Universitat de Barcelona

Facultad de Psicologia, Dpto. De Psicologia Evolutiva y de la Educacion

Avda Passeig de la Vall de´Hebron, 171

08035-Barcelona

SPAIN

E-mail-address of the contact-person: jescoriza@psi.ub.es

Title of study:

Effects of different instructional methods on reading acquisition of Spanish first graders.

Key words:

reading writing ability phonological awareness early literacy development phonological recoding skills segmentation abilities phonological awareness

Beginning date of study (month, year):

Date of latest data collection (month, year):

Number of completed waves:

Total number of waves (at the end of the study):

Time interval between waves (average):

Maximum sample size: 60

Size of core sample:

Age range at first data collection: 6 – 7 yrs.

Data computerized? no

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: no

Intervention study: yes

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups: 1

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups: 2

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month): 9 mths.

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month): 2 hrs./week

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

   
   
   

 

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to analyse differential effects of various instructional methods at the beginning of the learning to write. Our hypothesis was that an integrative method which includes the teaching of phonological knowledge in context and the carrying out of authentic literacy activities is more effective in promoting an adequate conceptualization in reading and in improving motivation and personal capacity to use the written language as an instrument of communication, learning and interaction in a sociocultural environment.

The study was conducted on 60 first grade primary school pupils who were divided into three groups depending on the kind of instructional proposal which was applied: phonetic, holistic and complementary.

According to the results it seems that the different instructional methods have very different effects on the educational process of literacy. The methods of teaching literacy skills influence the capacity of students to identify isolated words, and holistic methods have a more positive effect on the issues which are related to the knowledge of functional and communicative aspects of the written language. It is the integrative method however which happens to be the most effective one because of its stress on promoting the knowledge of both dimensions of language: form and meaning.

Publications:

Escoriza, J. (1996). El proceso de lectura: aspectos teorico-explicativos. En J. Escoriza, J.A. Gonzalez, A. Barca y R. Gonzalez (eds.), Psicologia de la Instruccion. Vo. 4. Psicopedagogias Especificas: Lenguaje Integrado y Procesos de Intervencion. Barcelona. Ediciones Universitarias de Barcelona.

Escoriza, J. (1996). Psicopedagogia del lenguaje escrito: la lectura. En J. Escoriza, J.A. Gonzalez, A. Barca y R. Gonzalez (eds.), Psicologia de la Instruccion. Vo. 4. Psicopedagogias Especificas: Lenguaje Integrado y Procesos de Intervencion. Barcelona. Ediciones Universitarias de Barcelona.

Escoriza, J. (1997). ¿ Dificultades en el aprendizaje de la lectura o niveles en el desarrollo de la competencia literada ? Revista Galega de Psicopedagoxia, 14-15 (10), 131-153.

Escoriza, J. y Boj, C. (1996). Explicacion del proceso de lectura y criterios de intervencion educativa. Revista Galega de Psicopedagoxia,13 (9), 43-56.

Escoriza, J. (1997). Educacion de la literidad. Revista de Logopedia, Foniatria y Audiologia, XVII (1), 39-46.

Escoriza, J. y Boj, C. (1997). Psicopedagogia de la escritura. Barcelona. Llibreria Universitaria de Barcelona.

Escoriza, J. (1998). Dificultades en el proceso de composicion del discurso escrito. En V. Santiuste y J. Beltran (Coords.), Dificultades de Aprendizaje. Madrid. Sintesis.

Escoriza, J. y Boj, C. (1998). Incidencia de las explicciones diferenciales del proceso de lectura en la interpretacion de las dificultades en el proceso de aprendizaje del lenguaje escrito. Revista de Psicodidactica, 6, 15-32.

Escoriza, J., Teberosky, A., Boj, C. y Roc, M. (1998). Trastornos de la lengua escrita. Barcelona. Edicions Universitat de Barcelona.

Escoriza, J. y Boj, C. (1998). ¿Es posible determinar cuando puede o debe iniciarse el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje del lenguaje escrito?. En J. Escoriza, A. Teberosky, C. Boj, y M. Roc. (1998). Trastornos de la lengua escrita. Barcelona. Edicions Universitat de Barcelona.

Escoriza, J. y Boj, C. (1998). ¿Tiene sentido el debate acerca de la eficacia relativa de los metodos para la enseñanza de la identificacion de palabras?. En J. Escoriza, A. Teberosky, C. Boj, y M. Roc. (1998). Trastornos de la lengua escrita. Barcelona. Edicions Universitat de Barcelona.

Escoriza, J. y Boj, C. (1998). Explicaciones de las dificultades en el proceso de lectura. En J. Escoriza, A. Teberosky, C. Boj, y M. Roc. (1998). Trastornos de la lengua escrita. Barcelona. Edicions Universitat de Barcelona.

 

 

 

C

Spain

Principal investigator(s):

Amparo Ygual Fernandez

Ana Miranda Casas

Jose F. Cervera Merida

Manuel Soriano Ferrer

Address: Universidad de Valencia

Escuela de Magisterio Edetania

Sagrado Corazon, 5

46110 Godella (Valencia)

SPAIN

E-mail-address of the contact-person: ygual@edetania.uv.es

Title of study:

Predicting factors in the successful development of reading and writing skills competence.

Key words:

phonological awareness reading spelling learning disabilities

Beginning date of study (month, year): 10-96

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 04-99

Number of completed waves: 3

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 4

Time interval between waves (average): 1 yr.

Maximum sample size: 50

Size of core sample: 40

Age range at first data collection: 5 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

PSL (Prueba de segmentacion Linguistica

 

BADICBALE

phonological awareness

TALE (Test de analisis de la lectura y escritura)

visual factors perception

TVIP (Peabody)

reading and writing skills

 

comprehensive vocabulary

 

 

Abstract:

The purpose of our study is to identify the association between reading and writing skills and a battery of test of linguistic and visual perceptive nature that tend to be used to determine the preparation of the children for the learning of reading and writing. The experimental sample was composed by a total of 40 children, 24 girls and 16 boys. The age average was of five years and six months in the first evaluation that was conducted in second course of pre-school. Children´s age in the second evaluation, accomplished in first course of primary school, was six years and four months. All children came from middle class families. The first assessment was accomplished in the second course of pre-school. Visual perceptive abilities and phonological awareness was measured. The second assessment was accomplished during the second trimester of the first course of primary school, focusing on reading and writing skills. The third measurement point is being accomplished currently; we do not have data yet. So far, we observed a meaningful association between the perceptual tests of differences and visual integration and the mistakes in the reading test as well as the mistakes in spelling. The only high correlation concerned visual integration and spelling. Also, it was found that the correlation between phonological awareness and the mistakes in natural spelling and phrases segmentation increased. These results seem to confirm that while writing is substantially alphabetical in the one which intervene abilities of phonological awareness, reading is analogous and not alphabetical at the beginning of the learning period.

Publications:

Ygual, A. , Miranda, A. & Soriano, M. (1997). Las habilidades metafonologicas corno predictoras del rendimiento lector. (Phonological awareness is the successful development of reading and writing skills competence). Revista de Neurologia, vol. 25 (141): 787.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

Spain

Principal investigator(s):

Isabel Garcia Gomez

Address: Universidad de Sevilla

Facultad de Ciencias de la Educacion. Psicologia Evolutiva de la Educacion.

Avda. Ciudad Jardin, 22

41005-Sevilla

SPAIN

E-mail-address of the contact-person: igarcia@cica.es

Title of study:

Teaching reading in first-grade: Relations to students´ knowledge about reading and reading level.

Key words:

first-grade reading teaching beginning of reading knowledge of reading purposes in first-grade integrative-balanced approach

Beginning date of study (month, year): 09-93

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 10-94

Number of completed waves: 10

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 10

Time interval between waves (average): teachers: 15/20 days, children: 6/7 mths.

Maximum sample size: teachers: 6, children: 142

Size of core sample: children: 110

Age range at first data collection: 6 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? yes

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other: observational study

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

EDIL: Exploracion de las Dificultades Individuales de Lectura (Individual Reading Difficulties Test, Gonzalez, 1992)

to test children´s reading ability (accuracy, comprehension and fluency)

Knowledge about reading Interview

to test children´s knowledge about reading (specially about purposes of reading)

SICDVEL (Description and Assessment of Reading Teaching Category System

to study patterns of reading teaching

 

 

Abstract:

From an integrative-balanced approach (Biemiller, 1994; Honig, 1996; Wharton-McDonald, Pressley and Hampston, 1998), a sample of six first-grade classrooms of several social contexts was studied in ordinary reading lessons. Aims of this study were to describe beginning reading teaching, to study first-grade children's knowledge of reading purposes and to analyse the relationship between reading ability and knowledge of reading purposes in children to teaching patterns in first grade. Teachers were advocates of different reading methods. Variables as initial reading level, age and family SES of 142 students were assessed and put under experimental control. At the beginning and end of first-grade, each child was administered an individual reading performance test (EDIL, Gonzalez, 1992). At the beginning of second grade, an interview on knowledge about reading was passed. Each class was videotaped at 15-20 day intervals. Recordings were analyzed with the aid of SICDVEL (Description and Assessment of Reading Teaching Category System). Different teaching patterns relative to specific reading issues and to communicative context (strategies and working climate) were found. Both reading ability and knowledge about reading purposes were related to specific teaching patterns, particularly to those related to communicative aspects.

Publications:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

Spain

Principal investigator(s):

Jose Valenzuela Gonzalez

Juan Fco. Romero Perez

Address: Universidad de Malaga

Facultad de Pscicologia. Departmento de Psicologia evolutiva y de la educacion.

Campus de Teatinos, S/N

29071 Malaga

SPAIN

E-mail-address of the contact-person:

Title of study:

Longitudinal study on learning to read: Causal analysis of cognitive-linguistic and context variables using normal and learning disabled children.

Key words:

Causal relationship between phonological skills and reading reading acquisition phonological awareness phonological production attention memory

Beginning date of study (month, year): 10-89

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 10-92

Number of completed waves: 7

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 7

Time interval between waves (average): 6 mths.

Maximum sample size: 175

Size of core sample: 175

Age range at first data collection: 5 - 7 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? yes

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other: Causal-longitudinal study

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

PREFO

Phonological production: qualitative evaluation in imitate and adressed language conditions

PSEFA

Phonological awareness: qualitative evaluation

PHALE

Reading: qualitative evaluation

Escala de Evaluacion de la Atencion y la Memoria

Attention and memory level: qualitative evaluation in reading tasks

Entrevista Evolutiva

Prenatal, developmental, educational and sociocultural factors evaluation

 

 

Abstract:

The main aim of the study was to understand the causal relation between cognitive-linguistic variables (phonological production, phonological awareness, steady attention and short term memory) and context variables (the scene literacy level and the family socio-cultural level) and learning to read (reading precision, comprehension and speed). We selected a sample of 175 five to eight years old subjects; 30 of them were subjects with learning disabilities, and the other 145 weren´t. A sequential-longitudinal design was used to evaluate subjects along 3 years, with measures every 6 months. "ANOVA", "T-STUDENT" and "LISREL" tests were applied for statistical analysis. The achievements indicated that: (1) Phonological production is a predictor variable of reading, a relation which is stressed at about a age of 8. (2) Phono-logical awareness is a better predictor variable of reading, relation which is stressed at about age 7. (3) Reading level also influences phonological awareness and phonological production, especially at advanced ages. (4) Steady attention is a predictor variable of reading, relation which is stressed at about age 8. (5) Short term memory is a predictor variable of reading, but this relation decreases at about age 7. (6) The scene literacy level’s influence on reading is not significant from 5 to 6 years old, but it is at about age 7. These findings allow important conclusions regarding educational planning, recommending the early instruction in phonological awareness, phonological production and attention, just to enhance reading learning.

Publications:

* GONZALEZ VALENZUELA, M.J. (1993). Estudio evolutivo del aprendizaje de la lectura. Analisis causal de la influencia de variables de desarrollo fonologico y psicolinguistico y de variables contextuales con niños normales y con dificultades de aprendizaje de cinco a ocho años. Tesis doctoral publicada en microfichas. Nº 92. Universidad de Malaga. ISBN:84-7496-390-7

* GONZALEZ VALENZUELA, M.J. (1995). Conocimiento fonologico en malos y buenos lectores. En GUERRERO, P. y LOPEZ, A. (Eds.). Aspectos de didactica de la lengua y la literatura. Tomo 1. Pags. 217-222. Servicio de publicaciones de la Universidad de Murcia. Murcia. ISBN: 84-7684-615-0

* GONZALEZ VALENZUELA, M.J. (1995). Un programa de intervencion en conocimiento fonologico para la mejora de las dificultades en el aprendizaje de la lectura. En GUERRERO, P. y LOPEZ, A. (Eds.). Aspectos de didactica de la lengua y la literatura. Tomo 1. Pags. 223-228. Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Murcia. Murcia. ISBN: 84-7684-615-0

* GONZALEZ VALENZUELA, M.J. y ROMERO PEREZ, J.F. (1997). Dificultades fonologicas y rendimiento en el aprendizaje de la lectura: un estudio longitudinal-trasversal. En BELTRAN, J., DOMINGUEZ, P., GONZALEZ, E., BUENO, J.A. y SANCHEZ, A. (Eds.). Nuevas perspectivas en la intervencion psicopedagogica. Tomo 1. Pags: 118-123. Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad Complutense de Madris. Madrid. ISBN: 84-7491-570-8

* GONZALEZ, M.J., ROMERO, J.F. y BLANCA, M.J. (1995). Modelo causal sobre el aprendizaje de la lectura. Relacion secuencial entre Conocimiento Fonologico y la Lectura. Psicothema, Vol. 7, nº 2. 133-146.

* GONZALEZ, M.J. (1996). Aprendizaje de la lectura y Conocimiento Fonologico: Analisis evolutivo e implicaciones educativas. Revista Infancia y Aprendizaje, Nº 76. 97-107.

* GONZALEZ, M.J. y ROMERO, J.F. (1999). ¿Influye la Produccion Fonologica en el aprendizaje de la lectura?. Revista de Logopedia, Audiologia y Foniatria, XIX (2). 61-68.

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

Spain

Principal investigator(s):

Juan Jimenez Gonzalez

M.A. Rumeu

Address: Universidad de La Laguna

Dpto. De Psicologia, Dpto. De Psicologia Evolutiva y de la Educacion

Campus de Guajara

38200-Tenerife, Islas Canarias

SPAIN

E-mail-address of the contact-person: ejimenez@ull.es

Title of study:

Writing disorders and their relationship to reading-writing methods: A longitudinal study.

Key words:

spelling difficulties writing ability code instruction whole language approach

Beginning date of study (month, year): 05-84

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 04-85

Number of completed waves: 4

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 4

Time interval between waves (average): 5 mths.

Maximum sample size: 758

Size of core sample: 260

Age range at first data collection: 6;2 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

teaching diagnosis in reading and writing

to classify teachers as a function of reading instruction

dictation

to analyze spelling errors

memory task

to analyze the influence of reading methods on memory skills

perceptual discrimination test

to analyze the influence of reading methods on perceptual skills

reading comprehension test

to analyze the influence of reading methods on reading performance

Lorge-Thorndike Intelligence Test

to control the influence of IQ

copy task

to analyze handwriting skills

 

 

Abstract:

The study was designed to investigate some writing disorders shown by children who had been taught by different methods of reading and writing. Methods differ in that some emphasize the processes of decoding bottom-up (e.g. syllabic and phonic method) while others stress top-down processes, that is, they put greater emphasis on meaning (e.g. global-natural method). A longitudinal study using a sample of 260 school children was performed. The children were of both sexes from public and private schools and from different socio-economic backgrounds. It was found that the pupils who learn by a global-natural method make errors that relate more to reproductive aspects of information. In contrast, the pupils who learned by the phonic and syllabic methods made more errors of meaning.

Publications:

Jimenez, J.E. & Rumeu, M.A. (1989). Writing disorders and their relationship to reading-writing methods: A longitudinal study. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 22, 195-199.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I

Spain

Principal investigator(s): Juan Jimenez Gonzalez

M.R. Ortiz Gonzalez

Address: Universidad de La Laguna

Dpto. De Psicologia, Dpto. De Psicologia Evolutiva y de la Educacion

Campus de Guajara

38200-Tenerife, Islas Canarias

SPAIN

E-mail-address of the contact-person: ejimenez@ull.es

Title of study:

Metalinguistic awareness and reading acquisition in the Spanish language.

Key words:

metalinguistic abilities phonological awareness written language awareness decoding and word recognition reading comprehension structural equation modelling

Beginning date of study (month, year): 01-90

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 11-91

Number of completed waves: 3

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 3

Time interval between waves (average): 9 mths.

Maximum sample size: 478

Size of core sample: 272

Age range at first data collection: 5;1 - 6;6

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? yes

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: yes

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups: 1

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups: 1

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month): 23 weeks

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month): 2 hrs./week

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

Lorge-Thorndike Intelligence Test

to control the influence of IQ

reading test

to assess decodification of words and pseudowords

comprehension reading test

to assess reading comprehension

language awareness test

to assess phonological awareness

written language test

to assess the knowledge of words, sentences, letters, etc.

intrasyllabic awareness test

to assess the knowledge of onset and rimes

phonemic awareness test

to assess phoneme awareness

socioeconomic index

to assess status, socioeconomic level, family income, educational level, etc.

 

 

Abstract:

In this research structural equation modelling and a meta-linguistic training study was used to analyze the directionality of relationships between two metalinguistic abilities (i.e. phonological awareness and written language features awareness) and two reading components (i.e. phonological recoding and reading comprehension). At January of the Kindergarten year the tests were administered to all 478 pre-literate children. From March until May of the Kindergarten year a sample of 136 children participated in the experimental group. The children were trained in their classrooms during the regular school day, 15 to 20 minutes each day. All children completed 34 lessons which were conducted by their Kindergarten teachers. The training program consisted of: words, syllables, phoneme awareness activities, and activities directed to teach written language functions and characteristics. At May of the Kindergarten year the post-test was administered to 272 children. During first grade children were introduced to reading using a phonics method and the treatment group received the second phase of metalinguistic training program (86 lessons). At the beginning of the second grade, metalinguistic abilities and reading performance were assessed. Results demonstrated that reading ability (phonological recoding) was strongly influenced by phonological awareness particularly by syllabic awareness and phonemic awareness, and reading instruction had an influence on phonemic and syllabic awareness. We interpreted these results to indicate a reciprocal influence between phonological awareness and reading ability. On the other hand, awareness of written language features influenced reading comprehension, but during reading instruction there was an increase of awareness of written language characteristics. This finding would support a bidirectional relationship between reading comprehension and written language awareness.

Publications:

Jimenez, J.E. & Ortiz, M.R. (in press). Metalinguistic awareness and reading acquisition in the Spanish language. The Spanish Journal of Psychology.

Jimenez, J.E. & Ortiz, M.R. (1995). Conciencia fonologica y aprendizaje de la lectura. Teoria, evaluacion e intervencion (Phonological awareness and learning to read. Theory, assessment and intervention). Madrid: Sintesis.

Ortiz, M.R. & Jimenez, J.E. (1993). Prueba de Conocimientos sobre el lenguaje escrito (CLE) (Linguistic Awareness Test). Madrid: TEA.

C

Sweden

Principal investigator(s):

Anders Arnqvist

Address: Karlstad Universitet

Inst. foer utbildningsvetenskap

S-651 88 Karlstad

SWEDEN

E-mail-address of the contact-person: anders.arnqvist@hks.se

Title of study:

The development of phonological recoding and orthographic decoding of single words

Key words:

Reading acquisition

Beginning date of study (month, year): 05-94

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 05-97

Number of completed waves: 4

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 4

Time interval between waves (average): 1 yr.

Maximum sample size: 400

Size of core sample: 320

Age range at first data collection: 8 - 9 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

Phonological recoding

to test the ability to read words phonological

orthographic decoding

to test the ability to read words by orthography

Reading comprehension

test the childs reading comprehension

Working memory

 

Short term memory

Measure digit span

JTPA

Measure of diff. Linguistic abilities

Raven

Eductive ability

Counting sounds

Phonological segmentation

 

 

Abstract:

According to the dual-route theory, there are two ways of reading single words either by using phonological recoding or by using orthographic decoding. In this study the development of phonological and orthographic strategies was investigated. In a longitudinal study, 283 six-year-old children were followed. The children were tested on three occasions during a three year period. Tests of phonological recoding, orthographic decoding, reading comprehension, short-term memory and working memory were administered. Grade one children rely more on phonological recoding than on orthographic decoding and grade three children rely more on orthographic strategies than on phonological recoding. Results also indicate that achievement in visual short-term memory predicts later measures of orthographic decoding. Similarly achievement in working memory predicts later measures of phonological recoding. Phonological recoding seems to be more dependent on working memory capacity than orthographic decoding. Finally grade one measures of working memory capacity, orthographic decoding and visual short-term memory account for 33 percent of the variance in grade three measures of reading comprehension.

Publications:

Arnqvist, A. (1996). The development of phonological recoding and orthographic decoding of single words. Paper presented at the XIV th Biennial Meetings of ISSBD in Quebec, Canada 1996.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I

Sweden

Principal investigator(s):

Stefan Gustafson

Stefan Samuelsson

Jerker Roennberg

Address: Linkoeping University

Institutionen foer pedagogik, och psykologi

S-581 83 Linkoeping

SWEDEN

E-mail-address of the contact-person: stegu@ipp.liu.se

Title of study:

Why do some resist phonological intervention? A Swedish longitudinal study of poor readers in Grade 4.

Key words:

individual differences phonological training word decoding

Beginning date of study (month, year): 12-94

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 12-95

Number of completed waves: 3

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 3

Time interval between waves (average): 6 mths.

Maximum sample size: 148

Size of core sample: 148

Age range at first data collection: 8 - 11 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: no

Intervention study: yes

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups: 1

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups: 3

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month): 12 mths.

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month): 40 minutes/week

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

Laestest 8

text reading ability

Laestest 9

text reading ability

Vilket aer raett?

orthographic word decoding

Vilket later raett?

phonological word decoding

UMESOL: Segment substraction

phonological awareness

Verbal fluency

verbal fluency

TVPS-UL: Visual-spatial relationships

visual perception

 

 

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of a phonological training program and identify differences between children who benefit from phonological training and children who do not benefit. In a longitudinal intervention study, 33 Swedish poor readers in Grade 4 received phonological awareness training during one year. The training program contained seven strictly phonological types of exercises; rhymes position analysis, segment addition and segment subtraction, segmentation, blending and accentuation. Three control groups were included in the study: Grade 4 controls, Grade 2 controls (both matched on reading skill), and normal readers. The phonological training group showed progress in phonological awareness but did not improve their reading skills any more than the controls. However, a re-analysis of the results revealed important individual differences within the phonological training group. Some children improved their reading ability considerably while others seemed resistant to phonological awareness training. One critical difference between improved and resistant readers was identified; for improved readers both orthographic and phonological word decoding contributed to text reading performance whereas resistant readers continued to rely only on orthographic decoding, in spite of their increase in phonological awareness. Thus, it seems that individual differences in the use of word decoding strategies need to be considered when planning and implementing a phonological intervention.

Publications:

Gustafson, S., Samuelsson, S. & Roennberg, J. (submitted) Why do some resist phonological intervention? A Swedish longitudinal study of poor readers in Grade 4.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

Sweden

Principal investigator(s):

Christer Jacobson

Ingvar Lundberg

Address: Vaexjoe Universitet

Institutionen foer pedagogik

S-351 95 Vaexjoe

SWEDEN

E-mail-address of the contact-person: christer.jacobson@iped.uxu.se

Title of study:

Individual growth curves in reading.

Key words:

word recognition reading and spelling reading acquisition growth-curve modeling

Beginning date of study (month, year): 04-89

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 04-97

Number of completed waves: 3

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 4

Time interval between waves (average): approx. 3 yrs.

Maximum sample size: 100 (experimental group), 90 (controls)

Size of core sample: 155 (80 exp. & 75 contr.)

Age range at first data collection: 8;4 - 9;3

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? yes

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other: not experimental

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

Wordchains test

word recognition, word decoding, mostly orthographic

 

 

Abstract:

There are varying opinions on how reading ability develops for children with reading disabilities. One assumption, the lag model, is that poor readers are just slow starters who will catch up as they mature. The alternative view, the deficit model, is that poor reading is a more persistent condition. Individual growth curves on the basis of a visual word recognition test, the Wordchains, will be presented. This test is designed such that the same assessment is designed such that the same measurement can be applied from grade 1 to adulthood. Since exactly the same assessment is applied repeatedly the method is suitable for examining individual changes in word recognition over time. Based on two screening tests of word reading together with teacher ratings a total of 83 reading disabled (RD) children (65 boys and 18 girls) were selected from 2165 children in grade 2. A control group of 79 non-disabled children were carefully matched with the RD children on gender, school class and non-verbal cognitive ability. The selected children were followed over a period of seven years, until grade 9 at the end of compulsory schooling. The Wordchains test was administered in grades 2, 5 and 9. For each child a linear growth function was estimated. Most of the children with early reading problems were still far behind the normal readers by the end of the compulsory school period. In summary 3 out of 5 early identified RD children were stable poor readers seven years later. The gap between children with reading disability and the control group tended to increase despite extensive intervention of remedial instruction. Only 18% of the RD boys reached the average level at grade 9. Thus, a lag model was not supported by the present data, at least for a large majority of early reading disabled children for whom a deficit model seemed more appropriate.

Publications:

Jacobson, C. (1999). How persistent is reading disability? Individual growth curves in reading. Dyslexia (in press).

Jacobson, C. & Lundberg, I. (1999). Early prediction of individual growth in reading. Reading and Writing (in press).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I

Sweden

Principal investigator(s):

Ingvar Lundberg

Joergen Frost

Ole-Peter Petersen

Address: Goeteborgs universitet

Psykologiska Institution

Box 500

S-405 30 Goeteborg

SWEDEN

E-mail-address of the contact-person:

Title of study:

Effects of an extensive program for stimulating phonological awareness in pre-school children.

Key words:

phonological awareness pre-school intervention metalinguistic training

Beginning date of study (month, year): 1985

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 1990

Number of completed waves: 7

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 7

Time interval between waves (average): 0,5 - 1 yr.

Maximum sample size: 390

Size of core sample: 390

Age range at first data collection: ~ 6 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: no

Intervention study: yes

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups: 1

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups: 1

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month): 8 mths.

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month): 15-20 min./day

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

word reading

(tests 1-5: pre-school measures)

prereading ability

recognition of letters

letter knowledge

KTI

language comprehension

picture naming

vocabulary

metaphonological tests: rhyme test, segmentation of sentences, syllable synthesis, syllable segmentation, deletion of initial phoneme, phoneme segmentation, synthesis of phonemes

metaphonological skills

metaphonological transfer tests: rhyme task, sound analysis, word length analysis, syllable segmentation, phoneme segmentation

(tests 6-10: school measures)

metaphonological skills

Raven´s test

non-verbal intellectual ability

mathematics test

mathematic skills

reading test OS 400

reading skill

spelling test

spelling skill

 

 

Abstract:

A training program consisting of metalinguistic games and exercises was developed with the aim of stimulating pre-school children to discover and attend to the phonological structure of language. The program was evaluated in a longitudinal study in which 235 Danish pre-school children in intact classes had daily training sessions over a period of 8 months. The children received no reading instruction prior to or during training. Pre- and post-test measures were also taken from a comparison group of 155 children. Subsequently, the authors assessed long-term effects of the training on the children's progress in reading and spelling in first and second grades. The design of the study permitted the authors to assess the specificity of the training effects. The program had no significant effect on functional linguistic skills, such as comprehension of oral instructions, or vocabulary. It did not affect the informal learning of letter names. But it did affect metalinguistic skills: Small but significant effects were observed on rhyming tasks and on tasks involving word and syllable manipulation. And on tasks requiring phoneme segmentation, the effect was dramatic. Apparently, phonemic awareness can be developed among pre-school children outside the context of the acquisition of an alphabetic writing system. However, explicit instruction seems to be required. It was also demonstrated that pre-school training in phonological awareness can have a facilitating effect on subsequent reading and spelling acquisition. The positive effect persisted until Grade 2.

Publications:

Lundberg, I. (1978). Aspects of linguistic awareness related to reading. In A. Sinclair, R.J. Jarvella & W.J.M. Levelt (Eds.), The child´s conception of language (pp. 83-96). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Lundberg, I. (1984). Sprak och laesning (Language and reading). Malmoe, Sweden: LiberFoerlag.

Lundberg, I. (1985). Longitudinal studies of reading and reading difficulties in Sweden. In G.E. MacKinnon & T.G. Waller (Eds.), Reading Research: Advances in Theory and Practice (Vol.4, pp. 65-105). New York: Academic Press.

Lundberg, I. (1987). Are letters necessary for the development of phonological awareness? Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitive, 7, 472-475.

Lundberg, I. (1989a). Two dimensions of decontextualization in reading acquisition. In P.B. Gough (Ed.), Theories of Reading Acquisition. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Lundberg, I. (1989b). Lack of phonological awareness. A critical factor in dyslexia. In C. von Euler, G. Lennerstrand & I. Lundberg (Eds.), Brain and Reading (pp. 221-231). New York: Macmillan.

Lundberg, I., Frost, J. & Petersen, O.-P. (1988). Effects of an extensive program for stimulating phonological awareness in pre-school children. Reading Research Quarterly, 23, 263-284.

Lundberg, I. & Hoien, T. (1991). Patterns of information processing skills and word recognition strategies in developmental dyslexia. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 34.

Lundberg, I., Olofsson, A. & Wall, S. (1980). Reading and spelling skills in the first school years predicted from phonemic awareness skills in kindergarten. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 21, 159-173.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

As the authors could not answer the questionnaire, all information was gathered from the authors´ publications.

C

Sweden

Principal investigator(s):

Mats Myrberg

Address: Linkoepings universitet

Instituionen foer pedagogik och psykologi

S-581 83 Linkoeping

SWEDEN

E-mail-address of the contact-person: matmy@ipp.lin.se

Title of study:

Emoliteracy - Swedish retest study.

Key words:

functional literacy adult literacy

Beginning date of study (month, year): 10-94

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 06-98

Number of completed waves: 2

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 2

Time interval between waves (average): 4 yrs.

Maximum sample size: 765

Size of core sample: 765

Age range at first data collection: 16 - 62 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? yes

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

IALS Literacy test

measuring everyday adult literacy

IALS BQ

data on personal [?], socio-economic & work life status and reading habits

 

 

Abstract:

will be completed in the fall of 99 when the project is reported

Publications:

not yet available

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

Sweden

Principal investigator(s): Pekka Niemi

Ake Olofsson

Heiki Lyytinen

Hrafnhildur Ragnarsdottir

Carsten Elbro

Address: Umea University

Department of Psychology

SE-901 87 Umea

SWEDEN

E-mail-address of the contact-person: ake.olofsson@psy.umu.se

Title of study:

The Swedish part of: Language development and reading acquisition.

Key words:

reading acquisition word decoding phonological awareness rapid naming children at risk for dyslexia language abilities

Beginning date of study (month, year): 11-98

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 05-99

Number of completed waves: 2

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 5

Time interval between waves (average): 6 mths.

Maximum sample size: 200

Size of core sample: unknown (data from wave 2 not registered yet)

Age range at first data collection: 6 - 7 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other: 2 cohorts

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

letter naming

letter sound knowledge, letter naming speed

oral reading

function words (h.f.), content words, monosyllabic pseuodwords, bisyllabic pseudowords

RAN pictures

naming speed, grade 1 (age 7)

RAN colours

pre-school, age 6

spelling

monosyllabic and bisyllabic pseudowords

spelling

letters

word finding

skill in finding words starting with a given letter, speed and accuracy, grade 1 (age 7)

letter naming

pre-school letter knowledge, subsample of letters

letter writing

pre-school, subsample of letters

spelling

pre-school spelling, h.f. simple words and monosyllabic pseudowords

phonological awareness

pre-school phoneme blending, initial sound and phoneme counting (group test)

rapid naming

pre-school (age 6)

 

 

Abstract:

A Nordic co-operative research project supported by the Joint Committee of the Nordic Social Science Research Councils (Nordisk Samarbejdsnaemnd for Samfunnsforskning NOS-S), project number 124811/541. The project is investigating the relationship between language related variables and reading acquisition. Recent findings in international reading research have demonstrated positive effects of pre-reading game-like activities on reading acquisition. The present project extends previous research by using younger children and by taking a closer look at the development of children at risk for failure in learning to read. Pre-school phonological awareness, letter knowledge and rapid naming abilities are assessed and related to word decoding skills and spelling ability during the initial stage of learning to read. For one sample of children the reading development is monitored for several years in order to gather information about the development of higher stages of reading skill.

Publications:

Olofsson, A. (1999). Naming speed, phonological awareness and the initial stage of learning to read. Paper presented at the symposia "Beyond phonological processing - Other language and cognitive processing deficits related to dyslexia". Lunds University, May 21, 1999.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

Sweden

Principal investigator(s):

Ake Olofsson

Address: Umea University

Department of Psychology

SE-901 87 Umea

SWEDEN

E-mail-address of the contact-person: ake.olofsson@psy.umu.se

Title of study:

Phonological processes in reading

Key words:

phonological awareness adult dyslexics word recognition digit naming reading and spelling

Beginning date of study (month, year): spring 1978

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 12-97

Number of completed waves: > 5

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): > 5

Time interval between waves (average): 1 +15 yrs. follow-up

Maximum sample size: 90

Size of core sample: 25

Age range at first data collection: 7 - 8 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other: longitudinal, differential design, dyslexic group/control group

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

Spelling

knowledge of regular spelling of the Swedish j-sound in low-frequency words.

Vocabulary

To choose the correct synonyme from one of three phonologically similar orally presented alternatives (task adopted from Elbro et al., 1994)

Digit naming speed

Speed in naming 50 randomly ordered digits

Initial phoneme analysis

Phonological awareness. To find and say the first sound in orally presented words

Sound deletion

Phonological awareness. To pronounce a word after deleting a specific sound

Phonological coding

To select the pseudohomophone from a group of pseudo words. (adapted from Olson, Forsberg, Wise & Rack, 1994)

Orthographic coding

To underline the true word in true-word pseudo-homophone pairs (adapted from Olson, Forsberg, Wise & Rack, 1994)

Decoding of "word chains"

To read and separate chains of 2, 3 or 4 words concatenated without inter-word blankspace.

Proof reading

To find homophones which in the present context were misspelled

Reading comprehension

Short texts followed by multiple choice questions

Visual motor figure chains

Speed of visual motor processing

Questionnaire

Educational history, preferences for school subjects, family and job status, reading habits

Sine-wave speech perception

Perception of sine-wave replicas of natural speech

Phonological awareness in grades 2 and 3

Awareness of syllables and phonemes

Word decoding in grades 1, 2 and 3

Speed and accuracy in recognition and comprehension of single words

Spelling in grades 1, 2 and 3

Spelling of high frequency words

Picture naming in grade 2

 

Teacher ratings in grade 1, 2 and 3

Social adjustment, reading, writing

Raven in grades 1, 2 and 3

Problem solving skill

Attitude scales

Attitude to school subjects, peers, self

Abstract:

This chapter reports some preliminary results from a follow-up study where 15 young adults with a well documented history of early reading problems (at age 8 and 9) are compared to pupils from the same schools but without reading problems. The two groups were found to differ on a wide range of variables, i.e. word decoding, spelling, rapid naming, phonological awareness and vocabulary, but not on perception of synthetic speech (sine-wave replicas of normal speech) and not on simpler reading comprehension tasks. Interviews and questionnaires revealed that persons with a history of reading problems choose less demanding educational programme, do less reading and writing on their jobs and have other future plans than normal readers.

To a large extent these persons continue to avoid reading and spelling tasks in their everyday life.

Publications:

Olofsson, A. (1999). Early reading problems: A follow up 20 years later. In Lundberg, Tønnesen and Austad (Eds.), Dyslexia. Advances in theory and practice. Kluwer.

Olofsson, A., Gruber, M., & Smedberg-Aman, G. (1999, April). The longitudinal relationship between early reading problems and reading skills, phonological processing and educational status 20 years later. Paper presented at the Sixth annual meeting of the Society for the Scientific Study of Reading, Montreal, April 23-25, 1999

Olofsson, A., Smedberg-Aman, G. & Gruber, G. (1998, August). Early reading problems: A follow up 20 years later. Paper presented at the 14th International Congress of the Association for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Allied Professions, August 2-6, 1998, Stockholm, Sweden.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

Sweden

Principal investigator(s): Ake Olofsson

Jan Niedersoe

Address: Umea University

Department of Psychology

SE-901 87 Umea

SWEDEN

E-mail-address of the contact-person: ake.olofsson@psy.umu.se

Title of study:

Early language development and kindergarten phonological awareness as predictors of reading problems: From 3 to 8 years of age.

Key words:

reading acquisition word decoding phonological awareness language abilities syntactic awareness vocabulary expressive language receptive language prediction of reading and spelling

Beginning date of study (month, year): 01-88

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 11-98

Number of completed waves: 10

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 15

Time interval between waves (average):

Maximum sample size: 436

Size of core sample: 312

Age range at first data collection:

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? yes

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other: longitudinal population study

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):Purpose:

vocabulary

Vocabulary measured by verbal prompting and pictures, at age 3

phonology

pronunciation of words, scored for phonological accuracy, age 3 and 6

speech comprehension

Comprehension as revealed by verbal responses to verbal questions

about pictures

sentence construction

Sentence length and (rated) correctness (age 3)

morphology

Use of plural form, present tense and color names (age 3)

sentence repetition

Verbal memory, age 6

sentence completion

Grammatical and lexical knowledge, age 6

classification

Lexical organisation

class inclusion

Verbal logical reasoning

drawing after verbal instruction

Working memory

language awareness

Pre-school group test (rhyme, syllable and sound awareness)

parent questionnaire

Literacy stimulation in home environment

word reading

silent word decoding in Grade 2 (age 8) and 3 (age 9)

sentence reading

silent decoding and comprehension, grade 3 and 4

 

 

Abstract:

At the end of grade 4, 481 children on the Danish island Bornholm were

screened using group tests for sentence reading. For 205 of these children

language and speech data from the speech-therapist's screening at age 3

were available as well as language comprehension and linguistic awareness

data from the kindergarten year (age 6) and word decoding measures in

grades 2 and 3. A path analysis revealed significant paths from early

language abilities at age 3, through expressive and receptive language in

kindergarten, via language awareness in kindergarten and to word decoding

in grade 2 and further to sentence reading in grades 3 and 4. A parent

questionnaire, administered at school start, showed that the subgroup of

children with parents reporting a history of reading problems scored

significantly below average in grade 4 on sentence reading. Further, the

subgroup of children that were reported to show a very low interest for

books and story reading before age 5, also scored low on sentence reading

in grade 4. Statistically significant but weak relationships were also

found between parent's educational background, parent's library visits, and

number of books at home, and the child's reading ability in grade 4.

Publications:

Olofsson, A., & Niedersøe, J. (in press). Early language development and

kindergarten phonological awareness as predictors of reading problems: From

3 to 11 years of age. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 32.

Olofsson, A. (1997). Early language development and kindergarten

phonological awareness as predictors of reading problems: From 3 to 8 years

of age. In Leong, C. K. and Joshi, R. M. (Eds.), Cross-language studies of

learning to read and spell: Phonologic and orthographic processing (pp.

289-303). Dordrecht: Kluwer.

Olofsson, A., & Niedersøe, J. (1997). Samband mellan tidig sprakutveckling,

fonologisk medvetenhet i foerskolan och laesproblem i skolan. [Relationship

between early language development, pre-school phonological awareness and

reading problems in school]. Socialmedicinsk tidskrift, Januari, 1997:74:1

(14-18). (In Swedish).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I

Sweden

Principal investigator(s): Ake Olofsson

Address: Umea University

Department of Psychology

SE-901 87 Umea

SWEDEN

E-mail-address of the contact-person: ake.olofsson@psy.umu.se

Title of study:

Pre-school stimulation of language awareness in 5 year old children: Implementation and long-term effects on reading acquisition.

Key words:

phonological training emergent literacy pre-school intervention language abilities reading and spelling

Beginning date of study (month, year): 01-97

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 05-99

Number of completed waves: 5

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 8

Time interval between waves (average): 9 mths.

Maximum sample size: approx. 90

Size of core sample: 47

Age range at first data collection: 4;0 - 4;5 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? yes

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: yes

Other: longitudinal, lagged design, no control group

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups: 2

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month): 8+8 mths.

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month): 15-30 min./week

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

print awareness

concepts about print and writing, at age 4 and 5 year

nursery rhyme knowledge

ability in learning and remembering nursery rhymes, age 4 and 5

letter knowledge

age 4 and 5

spell own name

skill in spelling own name at age 4 and 5

spell friends name

at age 4 and 5

spell new name

ability to spell new, unknown name, age 4 and 5

name recognition

recognition of the names of other children in the group, age 4 and 5

word awareness

counting of words in short sentences, age 4 and 5

syllable awareness

counting of syllables in words, age 4 and 5

rhyming

 

initial phoneme recognition

ability to recognise the initial phoneme in short words

phoneme counting

marking of phonemes in short words, age 4 and 5

phoneme blending

blending two or three phonemes to a word, age 4 and 5

phonological awareness

initial phoneme, phoneme blending and phoneme counting at age 6

letter knowledge

in grade 1, at age 7

word reading

oral reading of single words in lists, grade 1

pseudo word reading

in grade 1

silent word decoding

grade 2

spelling

grade 1,2,3

orthographic and phonological word decoding

grade 3

 

 

Abstract:

The aim of the study is to develop and evaluate a pre-school training program in phonological awareness for younger children than what has been done in earlier studies. The program should allow children of all levels of language awareness to participate in the same training sessions. This longitudinal study comprises three kindergarten groups of children that are seen individually several times each year during the pre-school age, tested in kindergarten grade (mean age 6 years.) as well as in grade 1 and 2. Pre-reading measures included letter naming, phonological awareness, syllable awareness, print awareness and concepts about reading. Reading measures include silent word reading, oral word reading, non-word reading and pseudo-word spelling. In the kindergarten grade children participated in a program designed to develop phoneme awareness. The training was carried out within ordinary groups and with focus on children with early problems in language related tasks. Preliminary results show that delayed pre-school meta-linguistic skills predict later reading problems. At-risk children benefit from phonological awareness training and may after training reach normal levels of phonemic segmentation and blending skills, but nevertheless these children have a higher risk for problems in reading acquisition in grade 1.

Publications:

Olofsson, A. & Sundqvist, G. (1999). KAN - kartlaeggning av spirande sprak (KAN - assessment of emergent literacy). Umea: Specialpedagogiskt Centrum.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I

Switzerland

Principal investigator(s):

Madelon Saada-Robert

Address: Universite de Genève

Faculte de psychologie et des sciences de l'education (FPSE)

bld Carl Vogt

1205 Genève

SWITZERLAND

E-mail-address of the contact-person: madelon.saada@pse.unige.ch

Title of study:

Emergent reading and writing: an exploratory study.

Key words:

emergent literacy school achievement logography orthographic processing

Beginning date of study (month, year): 10-97

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 06-98

Number of completed waves: 4

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 4

Time interval between waves (average): 2 mths.

Maximum sample size:

Size of core sample: 6

Age range at first data collection: 4;3 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: no

Intervention study: yes

Other: qualitative comprehensive study

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups: 1

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month): 1 school year

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month): 1 week / 2 mths.

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

literacy representation

test 1-9: word and letter competencies on production and identification of literacy

word segmentation

 

word recognition

 

word writing

 

letter writing

 

letter recognition

 

phonological segmentation

 

emergent reading strategies

 

emergent writing strategies

 

 

 

Abstract:

The relationship between reading and writing arises in a great number of recent studies. This longitudinal research, starting with 4-year-old children in school learning context, is a contribution to the debate on the discrepancy, the complementarity or the interaction between the two terms in the evolution of literacy.

The main research question aims at the evolution of both reading and writing emergent strategies. In shared school situations, young children are already able to "read" picture books, elaborating hypotheses as well on the content and meaning of the story as on the lexical components of print. They also "write" texts, progressing from mere graphic traces to orthographical conventional forms.

The description of emergent reading (Elster, 1994) and writing (Ferreiro, 1988; Ehri, 1990) developmental strategies is based on videotaped observations and transcriptions, four times during the school year, in didactic elaborated situations. The strategies are related at each measurement point to the children's psycholinguistic knowledge, involving word identification, letter recognition and writing, first name identification and writing, lexical and phonological segmentations. Clinical interviews on the reading and writing functions and concepts complete the data.

This exploratory study follows a "situational" methodological model of research that will be explicated. It is founded on constructivist and sociocultural grounds for the didactical part, and on constructivism and cognitivism for the analysis of children emergent literacy strategies. The theoretical central background of this research is to contribute to the debate about two main developmental models of literacy: the linear stage model (Frith, 1985) and the "double foundation" model (Seymour, 1997).

After the exposition of both theoretical and methodological framework, the didactical school situations are analysed, followed by some results on the construction and links between logographic and alphabetic components in reading and writing.

Publications:

Saada-Robert, M. (to appear). Early emergent literacy. In P. Bryant & T. Nunes (Eds.), Handbook of literacy. Mahlaw, NJ: Erlbaum.

Saada-Robert, M. & Hoefflin, G. (à paraître). Image et texte: leur utilisation à l´ecole par des enfants de 4 ans.

Saada-Robert, M. & Favrel, G. (à paraître). Literacie emergente et statut psycholinguistique de la logographie.

C

The Netherlands

Principal investigator(s):

Cor Aarnoutse

Dianne Manders

Address: University of Nijmegen

Department of Educational Sciences

Montessorilaan 3

NL-6525 HR Nijmegen

THE NETHERLANDS

E-mail-address of the contact-person: c.aarnoutse@ped.kun.nl

Title of study:

Literacy and numeracy in kindergarten and grade one of the elementary school

Key words:

listening comprehension phonological awareness knowledge of graphemes naming speed decoding and word recognition arithmetic skills and knowledge

Beginning date of study (month, year): 01-98

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 10-99

Number of completed waves: 5

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 6

Time interval between waves (average): 6 mths.

Maximum sample size: 600

Size of core sample: 250

Age range at first data collection: 1 yr.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

Listening comprehension

to measure listening comprehension

Vocabulary

to measure vocabulary

Phonological awareness

to measure phonological awareness

Phonemic awareness

to measure phonemic awareness

Knowledge of graphemes

to measure the number of graphemes

Naming speed

to name colours, pictures, graphemes, etc.

Arithmetic awareness

to measure knowledge of numbers etc.

Decoding test

to measure decoding and word recognition

Reading comprehension

to measure reading comprehension etc.

Spelling

to measure spelling etc.

 

 

Abstract:

Aim: to investigate the development of literacy and numeracy during three grades (two grades of kindergarten and one grade of the elementary school) Sample: 10 schools, a stratified random sample procedure: the children were tested twice a year. New tests were developed. Results: the tests meet the requirements of reliability and construct validity, data will be analyzed with LISREL.

Publications:

The research project is still going on. There are till now no research publications.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

The Netherlands

Principal investigator(s): Cor Aarnoutse

Jan van Leeuwe

Marinus Voeten

Han Oud

Address: University of Nijmegen

Department of Educational Sciences

Montessorilaan 3

NL-6525 HR Nijmegen

THE NETHERLANDS

E-mail-address of the contact-person: c.aarnoutse@ped.kun.nl

Title of study:

Development of decoding, reading comprehension, vocabulary and spelling during the elementary school years

Key words:

decoding and word recognition Matthew effect reading comprehension spelling vocabulary

Beginning date of study (month, year): 10-91

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 05-97

Number of completed waves: 11

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 11

Time interval between waves (average): 6 mths.

Maximum sample size: 1218

Size of core sample: 530

Age range at first data collection: 1 yr.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

One-Minute-Test (speed test)

to measure word recognition

Reading comprehension tests grade 1 to 6

to measure reading comprehension

Vocabulary tests grade 1 to 6

to measure passive vocabulary

Spelling tests grade 1 to 6

to measure spelling words within a single sentence

Arithmetic tests grade 1 to 6

to measure addition, substraction, division and multiplication

 

 

Abstract:

The goal of this study was (1) to investigate the development of decoding (efficiency), reading comprehension, vocabulary and spelling during the elementary school years and (2) to determine the differences between poor, average and good performers with regard to the development of these skills. Twice each year two standardized tests for each skill were administered. For two successive periods, one of the tests for each skill were administered. For two successive periods, one of the tests for each skill was the same. To describe the development in terms of a latent variable evolving across grades, the structured-means version of the structural equation model was used. The growth was expressed in terms of effect size. With respect to the first question, clear seasonal effects were found for reading comprehension, vocabulary and spelling, while the seasonal effect for decoding efficiency was restricted to the early grades. Progress tended to be greater from fall to spring than from spring to fall. For decoding efficiency, and to a lesser degree for vocabulary and spelling, growth showed a declining trend across grades. For reading comprehension, the progress in grade 2 was lower than the progress in grade 3, but progress was declining across higher grades. With respect to the second question, it appeared that initially low performers on reading comprehension, vocabulary and spelling tended to show a greater progress, especially in periods where the largest amount of instruction was given. Although it was found that the low, medium and high ability groups remain in the same order, as far as their means are concerned, these findings do not confirm the existence of a Matthew effect for reading comprehension, vocabulary and spelling. For decoding efficiency no clear differential effect could be found: the gap between the poor and good performers did not widen over time for this skill.

Publications:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

The Netherlands

Principal investigator(s):

Theo Boland

M.J.C. Mommers

Address: Institute for Curriculum Development

Boulevard 1945 n.° 3

P.O. Box 2041

NL-7500 CA Enschede

THE NETHERLANDS

E-mail-address of the contact-person:

Title of study:

The importance of being literate: Reading development in primary school and its consequences for the school career in secondary education.

Key words:

reading acquisition school achievement

Beginning date of study (month, year): 1979

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 1987

Number of completed waves: 17

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 17

Time interval between waves (average): ½ yr.

Maximum sample size: 582

Size of core sample: 310

Age range at first data collection: (grade 1)

Data computerized?

Are data accessible to other researchers?

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

Standardized Dutch reading and spelling tests

Decoding speed, decoding fluency

Dutch test batteries

Intelligence, general school achievement

 

 

Abstract:

From 1979 till 1987 the Department of Education of the University of Nijmegen carried out a longitudinal reading research project. Two research questions were in the focus of interest. The first question dealed with the concept of reading development. Here reading development was defined in the way interrelations between latent reading variables – i.e. decoding, reading comprehension and spelling – change during the years of primary education in school. In the second research question we examined the relation between reading ability in primary school and the school career in secondary education.

The results indicate that, by conducting longitudinal reading research, it is possible to get a better and more detailed picture of the changing relationships between reading variables. And the somewhat obvious and trivial notion that reading and spelling ability in primary school affects the school career in secondary education has become more specific and clear.

Publications:

Boland, Th. (1990). Nijmeegs longitudinaal leesonderzoek: een synopsis. In C.A.J. Aarnoutse & M.J.M. Voeten (Eds.), Gaat en onderwijst (pp. 77-96). Liber amicorum voor Dr. M.J.C. Mommers. Tilburg: Zwijsen.

Boland, Th. & Mommers, M.J.C. (1986a). Development of reading skills in Dutch primary schools: Outcomes and prospects. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research, San Francisco.

Boland, Th. & Mommers, M:J.C. (1993). The importance of being literate: Reading development in primary school and its consequences for the school career in secondary education. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 8, 289-305.

Boland, Th., Voeten, M.J.M. & Visser, J.J.C.M. (1989). De invloed van de leesvaardigheid in het basisonderwijs op de schoolloopbaan in het voortgezet onderwijs. In J. van Damme & J. Dronkers (Eds.), Jongeren in school en beroep. Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger.

Mommers, M.J.C., Leeuwe, J.F.J. van, Oud, J.H.L. & Janssens, J.M.A.M. (1986). Decoding skills, reading comprehension and spelling: A longitudinal investigation. Tijdschrift voor Onderwijsresearch, 11, 97-113.

Mommers, M.J.C. (1987). An investigation into the relation between word recognition skills, reading comprehension and spelling skills in the first two years of primary school. Journal of Research in Reading, 10, 122-143.

Mommers, M.J.C. & Boland, Th. (1989). Die Entwicklung der Dekodierfaehigkeit, des Leseverstaendnisses und der Rechtschreibung bei Grundschuelern: eine Laengsschnittstudie. Zeitschrift fuer Paedagogische Studien, 3, 17-25.

 

 

 

 

 

 

As the authors could not answer the questionnaire, all information was gathered from the authors´ publications.

I

The Netherlands

Principal investigator(s):

Wim van Bon

E.H. Grievink

S.A.F. Peters

Address: University of Nijmegen

Vakgroep Orthopedagiek

Postbus 9104

NL-6500 HE Nijmegen

THE NETHERLANDS

E-mail-address of the contact-person: W.vanBon@ped.kun.nl

Title of study:

Developmental consequences of otitis media with effusion for language ability and educational attainment at age seven

Key words:

cohort study language abilities reading and spelling

Beginning date of study (month, year): 09-84

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 09-90 to 02-91

Number of completed waves: 12

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 12

Time interval between waves (average): 2 - 3 yrs.

Maximum sample size: 1439

Size of core sample: 305

Age range at first data collection: a full birth cohort of subjects born in the city of Nijmegen between September 1, 1982 and August 1, 1983

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? yes

Type of study:

Correlation study: no

Intervention study: yes

Other: Epidemiological study

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups: 3

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups: 2

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month): Frequency of tube placement varied.

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month): Varying

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

Language Tests for Children

(Taaltests voor Kinderen, W. van Bon, 1982)

Oral language comprehension and production

Specially developed tests for

- Phonemic segmentation,

- Sound blending

- Auditory discrimination)

Phonological abilities

One-Minute-Test (Brus & Voeten, 1979)

Word Recognition Test (van den Bosch, 1991)

Word decoding ability

Sentence Verification Test

(van den Bosch, 1991)

Comprehension of written sentences

Experimental Spelling Test

Word spelling competence

Teacher questionnaires

Language behaviour

educational attainment

Parent questionnaires

Language behaviour

Coloured Progressive Matrices (Raven, 1965; van Bon, 1986)

Non-verbal intelligence

 

 

Abstract:

The relationship between long-lasting, bilateral otitis media with effusion (OME) between the ages of two and four and language ability and educational attainment, in particular, reading and spelling ability at seven years of age, was studied in a prospective cohort study of 946 children. After selection, three groups were distinguished: 151 children with long-lasting, bilateral OME at pre-school age, 37 pre-school children treated with ventilation tubes, and 82 children with no history of OME at that age. Early bilateral OME was found to affect spelling ability, but not language performance or reading ability, at seven years. The effects of OME did not appear to increase with the number of observations of OME. Also, recurrent hearing loss did not have more detrimental effects than continuous hearing loss. Effects of treatment with ventilation tubes were not found. Only the teachers’ ratings of writing ability indicated a slight advantage of treatment with ventilation tubes. In conclusion, the educational consequences of early OME appear to be very small.

Publications:

Grievink, E. & S. Peters (1997) Developmental consequences of otitis media with effusion for language ability and educational attainment at age seven. Nijmegen: Dissertatie KUN.

Grievink, E.H., Peters, S.A.F., van Bon, W.H.J. & Schilder, A.G.M. (1993) The effects of early bilateral otitis media with effusion on language ability: a prospective cohort study. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 36,1004-1012.

Grievink, E.H., Peters, S.A.F., van Bon, W.H.J. & Schilder, A.G.M. (1995). Oordelen van ouders en leerkrachten over taalgedrag bij kinderen met Otitis Media met Effusie. Stem-, Spraak- en Taalpathologie, 4, 228-248.

Groenen, P., Crul, Th., Maassen, B. & van Bon, W. (1996). Perception of voicing cues by children with early Otitis Media with and without language impairment. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 39, 43-54.

Peters, S.A.F., Grievink, E.H., van Bon, W.H.J., van den Bercken, J.H.L. & A.G.M. Schilder (1997). The Contribution of Risk Factors to the Effect of Early Otitis Media with Effusion on Later Language, Reading, and Spelling. Developmental medicine and child neurology, 39, 31-39

Peters, S.A.F., Grievink, E.H., van Bon, W.H.J. & Schilder, A.G.M. (1994). The effects of early bilateral otitis media with effusion on educational attainment: a prospective cohort study. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 27, 111-121.

Schilder, A.G.M., van Manen, J.G., Zielhuis, A.G., Grievink, E.H., Peters, S.A.F. & van den Broek, P. (1993). Long-term effects of otitis media with effusion on language, reading, and spelling. Clinical Otolaryngology, 18, 234-241.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

The Netherlands

Principal investigator(s):

Peter F. de Jong

A. van der Leij

P.P.M. Leseman

B. Schonewille

Address: University of Amsterdam

Department of Education

Wibautstraat 4

NL- 1091 GM Amsterdam

THE NETHERLANDS

E-mail-address of the contact-person: pfdejong@educ.uva.nl

Title of study:

Learning to read in Dutch: Effects of cognitive abilities, classroom practices and home-literacy environment.

Key words:

school achievement reading acquisition cognitive and linguistic abilities parent-child interactions teacher-child interaction phonological abilities

Beginning date of study (month, year): 10-91

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 07-99

Number of completed waves: 8

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 9

Time interval between waves (average): 0,5 - 3 yrs.

Maximum sample size: approx. 480

Size of core sample: approx. 180

Age range at first data collection: 4;0 - 4;9 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

Block design, exclusion (tests 1-6: in kindergarten and grade 1)

non-verbal intelligence

receptive & productive vocabulary

word knowledge

rhyme categorisation, first & last sound categorisation

phonological awareness

word span, interference span, nonword repetition

verbal working memory

object naming

rapid naming

receptive & productive knowledge

letter knowledge

number naming, letter naming

(tests 7-10: from grade 1 on)

rapid naming

articulatory speed, counting speed

cognitive speed

word & nonword decoding speed, reading comprehension

reading achievement

calculation speed add. & subtr.

arithmetic achievement

spoonerisms

(tests 11-15: in grade 6)

phonological awareness

number & letter naming

rapid naming

 

listening comprehension

word & nonword decoding speed, reading comprehension

reading achievement

 

spelling

mother´s age, number of children, ethnic group, length of stay in Netherlands, SES, symbolic and literate job content

(tests 16-19: questionnaires)

family background

frequency reading & writing, high culture activities

parent´s literacy

 

parent´s child rearing beliefs

Literacy-related interactions, problem-solving interactions

opportunity of interactions

Book reading, categorization task

(tests 20-25: observations)

instructional quality

Book reading, categorization task

social emotional quality

Involvement (in kindergarten), task-engagement (in grade 1)

pupil behavior

Orderly climate, use of rules, social-emotional climate, cognitive climate, punishing behavior

Teacher behavior: climate

Adaptivity of the language, articulation, quality of language

Teacher behavior: language use

Amount of attention given per pupil

Teacher behavior: individual attention

Vocabulary, general development

(tests 26/27: questionnaires)

Teacher´s achievement expectations

 

Teacher´s perceptions of individual needs

 

Measures obtained in a subsample of about 150 children on three occasions: at the start and second year of kindergarten and at the beginning of grade 1

 

Abstract:

The study was started to explain variations in school achievement of children from different socio-economic and ethnic backgrounds. These variations were hypothesized to stem from systematic differences among children in the characteristics of their home and classroom environment, and in the development of the cognitive abilities that influence the growth of school achievement, especially reading acquisition. The study started in the first year of kindergarten with a multi-ethnic sample of about 480 children, which came from 28 schools situated in the four major cities in the Netherlands. The development of various cognitive abilities and of school achievement was followed until grade 6. Until grade 1, in a subsample of about 100 children aspects of home literacy were assessed by means of questionnaires and the observation of parent-child interactions. For about the same subsample class-room practices, especially teacher-child interactions, were examined. Thus far, the major results concern the effects of home literacy and cognitive abilities on reading acquisition. For word decoding we found time-limited effects of phonological abilities. Kindergarten phonological abilities did not exert additional effects on reading acquisition when letter knowledge and non-verbal intelligence have been taken into account. However, in grade 1, after a few months of reading instruction, these abilties had an independent influence on the subsequent development of word decoding. This extra effect disappeared after the end of grade 1. In the subsample, small effects of opportunity for literacy activities in the home and instructional quality of parents on word decoding at the end of grade 1 were observed. For reading compre-hension, we found that the development from grade 1 to grade 3 was primarily influenced by listening comprehension at the end of grade 1, while grade 1 word decoding had a small effect. In the subsample, instructional and social-emotional quality, observed in parent-child interactions, had a small influence on grade 5 reading comprehension.

Publications:

de Jong, P. F., & van der Leij, A. (in press). Specific contributions of phonological abilities to early reading acquisition: Results from a Dutch latent variable longitudinal study. Journal of Educational Psychology.

Leseman, P. P. M., & de Jong, P. F. (in press). How important is home literacy for acquiring literacy in school? A multicultural perspective. In L. Verhoeven & C. Snow.

de Jong, P. F., & van der Leij (1998). General and specific abilities as predictors of reading achievement. In P. Reitsma and L. Verhoeven (Eds.) Problems and interventions in literacy development (pp. 49-62). Dordrecht: Kluwer.

Leseman, P. P. M., & de Jong, P. F. (1998). Home literacy: Opportunity, instruction, cooperation, and social-emotional quality predicting early reading achievement. Reading Research Quarterly, 33, 294-318.

de Jong, P. F., Leseman, P. P. M., & Leij, A. van der (1997). Affective quality of mother-child interaction as a predictor of children's school achievement: Evidence for a situation specific relationship. In W. Koops, J. B. Hoeksma and D. C. van den Boom (Eds.), Development of interaction and attachment: Traditional and non-traditional approaches (pp. 313-314). Amsterdam: North Holland.

de Jong, P. F., Klapwijk, M. J. G., & van der Leij, A. (1995). Cognitieve en sociaal-emotionele vaardigheden van kleuters in relatie tot hun etnische herkomst [Cognitive and social-emotional abilities of kindergarten children in relation to their ethnic background]. Pedagogische Studiën, 72, 172-185.

Leseman, P.P.M., Sijsling, F.F., Jap-A-Joe, S.R., & Ôahin, S. (1995). Gezinsdeterminanten van de cognitieve ontwikkeling van vierjarige Nederlandse, Surinaamse en Turkse kleuters [Home influences on four year old Dutch, Surinamese and Turkish children's cognitive development]. Pedagogische Studiën, 72 (3), 186-205.

van der Leij, A., Meijnen, G.W., & Leseman, P.P.M. (1994). Schoolcareers from 4 to 7: effects of home and school. In F. Laevers (Ed.), Defining and assessing quality in early childhood education (pp.39-51). Leuven: Leuven University Press.

Leseman, P.P.M. (1994). Parent-child interactions as a system of informal education. In F. Laevers (Ed.), Defining and assessing quality in early childhood education (pp. 39-51). Leuven: Leuven University Press.

 

 

 

 

 

C

The Netherlands

Principal investigator(s):

C.M Koolstra

Address: Universiteit Leiden

Ctr. For Child and Media Studies

B.O. Box 9555

NL- 2300 RB Leiden

NETHERLANDS

E-mail-address of the contact-person: koolstra@rulfsw.Leidenuniv.nl

Title of study:

Television and children´s reading: A three-year panel study

Key words:

media use television viewing reading behavior

Beginning date of study (month, year): 12-89

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 12-91

Number of completed waves: 3

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 3

Time interval between waves (average): 1 yr.

Maximum sample size: 1050

Size of core sample: 828

Age range at first data collection: 2 groups: 8 year olds, 10 year olds

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? yes

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

television-viewing frequency

 

subtitle-reading frequency

 

reading comprehension

 

decoding skills

 

book-reading frequency

 

comic book-reading frequency

 

reading frequency magazines & newspapers

 

mental effort

 

reading concentration

 

reading attitude

 

background characteristics (gender, age

analyses with subgroups

 

 

Abstract:

Using a sample of 1,050 Dutch elementary schoolchildren who were in Grades 2 and 4 at the outset of the research, this study explored (a) the longitudinal effects of television viewing on children's reading comprehension, (b) the causal mechanisms that underlie television's longitudinal effects on reading comprehension, and (c) the longitudinal effects of television viewing on children's decoding skills. The children were surveyed three times, at 1-year intervals. Structural equations analyses suggested that television viewing inhibited the development of children's reading comprehension in both 1-year intervals of the study. Television's inhibitory effect on reading comprehension was not sensitive to children's IQ and socio-economic status, but did depend on types of programs watched. Partial support was found for two causal mechanisms underlying television's inhibitory effect on reading comprehension: (a) a television-induced reduction in leisure-time book reading and (b) a television-induced depreciation of reading. Watching subtitled foreign television programs was found to stimulate the development of decoding skills.

Publications:

Koolstra, C.M., van der Voort, T.H.A. & Vooijs, M.W. (1991). Buitenschools mediagebruik als voorspeller van technisch en begrijpend lezen. Pedagogische Studien, 68, 114-124.

Koolstra, C.M., van der Voort, T.H.A. & Vooijs, M.W. (1991). Televisie remt het lezen van boeken, maar niet van strips: Een tweejarige panelstudie. Comenius, 43, 249-262.

Koolstra, C.M., van der Voort, T.H.A. & Vooijs, M.W. (1992). Drie verklaringsmodellen voor de reductie van het lezen van boeken door de televisie: Een tweejarige panelstudie. Tijdschrift voor Onderwijsresearch, 17, 131-142.

Vooijs, M.W., Van der Kamp, L.J.Th., Koolstra, C.M. & Van der Voort, T.H.A. (1992). De multiniveau-benadering toegepast op leesvorderingen. Tijdschrift voor Onderwijsresearch, 17, 329-338.

Koolstra, C.M., van der Voort, T.H.A. & Vooijs, M.W. (1991). Media use and children´s reading performance. Poetics, Journal of Empirical Research on Literature, the Media and the Arts, 20, 105-118.

Koolstra, C.M. (1993). Television and children´s reading: A three-year panel study. Leiden, The Netherlands: Leiden University, Center for Child and Media Studies.

Koolstra, C.M. & Van der Voort, T.H.A. (1996). Longitudinal effects of television on children´s leisure-time reading: A test of three explanatory models. Human Communication Research, 23, 4-35.

Koolstra, C.M., van der Voort, T.H.A. & Van der Kamp, L.J.Th. (1997). Television´s impact on children´s reading comprehension and decoding skills: A three-year panel study. Reading Research Quarterly, 32, 128-152.

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

The Netherlands

Principal investigator(s):

R. Licht

D.J. Bakker

A. Kok

A. Bouma

Address: PI Research

PO Box 303

NL-11526 ZH Duivendrecht

THE NETHERLANDS

E-mail-address of the contact-person: r.licht@psy.vu.nl

Title of study:

Event-related potential asymmetries and word reading in children.

Key words:

learning to read event-related potentials hemispheric asymmetry word naming

Beginning date of study (month, year): 09-80

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 09-83

Number of completed waves: 4

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 4

Time interval between waves (average): 1 yr.

Maximum sample size: 74

Size of core sample: 51

Age range at first data collection: 5;1 – 6;2 yrs.

Data computerized?

Are data accessible to other researchers? Not available any more

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):RAS (Reading Acquisition Score)

Indicating number of trials to learn to name 4 different 1-syllable words at kindergarten

OMT (One Minute Test) (Brus & Voeten, 1973)

Test for word recognition administered in grade 2 and grade 3

Spelling task (v.d. Ley & Straiksma, 1977)

Grade 2 and grade 3

Vocabulary (PMA 2-4) (Kema, 1974)

Grade 2 and grade 3

Word completion (PMA 2-4) (Kema, 1974)

Grade 2 and grade 3

RAS words was presented in all 4 years during EEG recording both in normal and degraded type face

RT´s were analyzed

Single word reading task

Administered in grade 1, 2 and 3. In each grade 25 new words at grade-level were presented, vocal response times were recorded (voice key)

 

 

Abstract:

The study was performed to test the hypothesis that learning to read is mediated by the right as well as the left central hemisphere and the right hemisphere would be involved particularly in early stages in learning to read.

A group of normal kindergarten children was followed during a period of 4 years. Each year reading and reading-related tests were administered and ERPs were recorded on word naming tasks. One word naming task was repeated each year, another task was started at first grade and adapted to the reading level of the children (single word reading).

It was found that ERP amplitudes of late negative and late positive components changed from the right to the left hemisphere. These ERP amplitude changes were correlated with reading performance. The amplitude effects appeared to be pronounced in the single word reading task and more strongly present for good than for poor readers. In kindergarten, ERP effects were related to speed of reading acquisition of the experimental words (RAS).

Publications:

Licht, R., Kok, A., Bakker, D.J. & Bouma, A. (1986). Hemispheric distribution of ERP components and word naming in preschool children. Brain & Language, 27, 101-116.

Licht, R., Bakker, D.J., Kok, A. & Bouma, A. (1988). The development of lateral event related potentials (ERPs) related to word naming: A 4-year longitudinal study. Neuropsychologia, 26, 327-340.

Licht, R., Bakker, D.J., Kok, A. & Bouma, A. (1992). Age-related changes in event-related potentials (ERPs) in primary school children: Differences between two reading tasks. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 14, 193-210.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

The Netherlands

Principal investigator(s): R. Licht

P. Reitsma

D.J. Bakker

Address: PI Research

PO Box 303

NL-11526 ZH Duivendrecht

THE NETHERLANDS

E-mail-address of the contact-person: r.licht@psy.vu.nl

Title of study:

Hemispheric engagement and word identification in beginning readers.

Key words:

letter knowledge event-related potentials hemispheric asymmetry beginning of reading

Beginning date of study (month, year): 01-92

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 10-93

Number of completed waves: 3

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 3 (2 groups)

Time interval between waves (average): 4-5 mths.

Maximum sample size: 57

Size of core sample: 37

Age range at first data collection: 6;8 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

COMT (Caesar One Minute Test)

Word recognition test linked to learning to read method

Computerized reading task

High frequency words, pseudowords, changing words: words that were unfamiliar at the beginning of the study (January), but that were familiar at the end (October, November)

Lexical decision task

High frequency words, pseudowords, changing words: during this task ERPs were recorded in addition to reaction time and errors

Word repetition task (lexical decision)

Initially unfamiliar words that were 10 times repeated, pseudowords (not repeated), fillers (familiar words): during this task ERPs were recorded in addition to reaction time and errors

 

 

Abstract:

Aim: Assessment of electrocortical correlates of word identification in beginning readers that were followed during the first year of learning to read. The study was focused on examining changes in hemispheric engagement during learning to read in children.

Sample: Beginning readers in Grade 1, who had 3-4 months of reading instructions. They were measured at three time points: January (grade 1), May and October/November (grade 2). The tasks that were administered were as follows: decision on sameness of letters or letter names (4 letter arrays), lexical decision and lexical decision with word repetition.

Results: In all tasks response speed was increasing over measurement occasions, particularly for initially unfamiliar words that became familiar (long term and short term). ERPs showed longitudinal changes in asymmetry in late ERP components (800-1500 msec.), that were correlated with behavioral reading measures. Word repetition showed rapid increases in response speed and large decreases in frontal activity and increases in posterior activity simultaneously.

Publications:

Graaff, de M.B. & Licht, R. (in press). Event-related potentials in letter identification tasks: Developmental changes during the first year of reading education. Developmental Neuropsychology.

Graaff, de M.B., Licht, R., Reitsma, P. & Bakker, D.J. (1993). Word repetition and event-related potentials in beginning readers. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 15, 3 (Abstract).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

The Netherlands

Principal investigator(s):

Pieter Reitsma

Janwillem Bast

Address: PI Research

PO Box 366

NL-1115 ZH Duivendrecht

THE NETHERLANDS

E-mail-address of the contact-person: p.reitsma@psy.vu.nl

Title of study:

Development of individual differences in reading ability.

Key words:

interactive developmental model reading acquisition individual differences phonological skills reading comprehension listening comprehension vocabulary attitudes leisure time reading teaching variables

Beginning date of study (month, year): 06-91

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 06-94

Number of completed waves: 7

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 7

Time interval between waves (average):

1 measure in june (senior kindergarten)

3 measures in Grade 1 (about 3 months in between)

2 measures in Grade 2 (halfway and at the end of the schoolyear)

1 measure at the end of Grade 3.

 

Maximum sample size: 398

Size of core sample: 235

Age range at first data collection: 64 - 88 mths.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? yes

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

Phoneme segmentation

determine the skill in phoneme segmentation

Phoneme blending

determine the skill in phoneme blending

Emergent literacy knowledge

determine the extent in which kindergartners without explicit instruction had acquired early reading skills (knowledge about letter-sound, and word identification)

Non-verbal IO

Block design test to estimate non-verbal intelligence (only used in kindergarten)

Attitudes toward reading

Questions concerning attitudes towards reading at home, at school, or during vacations, as well as visiting the library (measured once in Grade 1, 2, and 3).

Leisure time reading

Frequency of book reading and comic book reading during leisure time, and the frequency of being read to by caretakers (measured several times during Grade 1, 2, and 3).

Decoding

determine the skill in word decoding; several different standardized test, often concurrently, were used throughout the study in order to optimize the discrimination of individual differences (this applies to all measures below).

Vocabulary (receptive & productive)

estimating vocabulary knowledge

Reading comprehension

estimating comprehension of written texts at appropriate reading age level

Listening comprehension

estimating comprehension of spoken sentences and short texts

 

 

Abstract:

The Matthew effect hypothesis provides a theoretical framework to describe the development of individual differences in reading ability. The model predicts an increase of individual differences in reading. Reciprocal relationships between reading and other factors seem to cause these increasing differences. This longitudinal study of 3 years is concerned with uncovering the existence and causes of increasing individual differences in reading in the early elementary grades. First data were gathered at the end of kindergarten (mean age 6 years 2 months) on phonological skills, vocabulary, non-verbal IQ, and emergent literacy skills. At several moments in Grades 1, 2 and 3 (a selection of) measures for decoding, vocabulary, reading and listening comprehension, attitudes toward reading, leisure time reading, and teaching variables were administered.

Data were analysed within a structural equation modelling framework. The results clearly indicate increasing individual differences for word recognition skills. For reading comprehension no such effects could be established for this limited time period. More importantly, some evidence for interactive relationships between reading and other cognitive skills, behaviours and motivational factors, hypothesized to cause increasing differences between readers, was found.

 

 

Publications:

Bast, J.W., & Reitsma, P. (1997). Matthew effects in reading: a comparison of latent growth curve models and simplex models with structured means. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 32, 135–167.

Bast, J.W., & Reitsma, P. (1998a). The Simple View of Reading: a developmental perspective. In P. Reitsma, & L. Verhoeven (Eds.), Problems and interventions in literacy development (pp. 95–109). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Bast, J.W., & Reitsma, P. (1998b). Analysing the development of individual differences in terms of Matthew effects in reading: results from a Dutch longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 34, 1373–1399.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

The Netherlands

Principal investigator(s): Pieter Reitsma

Ralph Wesseling

Address: PI Research

PO Box 366

NL-1115 ZH Duivendrecht

THE NETHERLANDS

E-mail-address of the contact-person: p.reitsma@psy.vu.nl

Title of study:

Development of phonological skills.

Key words:

Phonological skills blending skills segmentation abilities reading instruction

Beginning date of study (month, year): 01-95

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 01-96

Number of completed waves: 3

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 3

Time interval between waves (average): about 6 mths.

Maximum sample size: 158

Size of core sample: 120

Age range at first data collection: mean 70 mths.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

Phoneme segmentation

determine the skill in phoneme segmentation

Phoneme blending

determine the skill in phoneme blending

Phoneme deletion

determine the skill in pronouncing the remaining sound after deleting the initial phoneme

Early letter-sound knowledge

determine the extent in which kindergartners without explicit instruction had acquired knowledge about letter-sounds

Early reading knowledge

determine the extent in which kindergartners without explicit instruction had acquired the skill to read simple words

Vocabulary (receptive)

estimating vocabulary knowledge

 

 

Abstract:

Various tests for phonological skills were administered twice to 120 kindergarten children and a third time when they had received about 5 months of formal instruction in reading. The results of the study strongly suggest that schooling is a major influence on the development of phonological awareness. For all measures of phoneme awareness there were large increases in scores from the end of kindergarten to the final measurement in Grade 1. Children who at the start of the study had no letter knowledge, barely progressed in phonological awareness during kindergarten, but increased significantly when exposed to literacy instruction in Grade 1. It would appear that the introduction of formal reading instruction was the major cause of this increase.

Publications:

Wesseling, R., & Reitsma, P. (1998). Phonemically aware: Just a hop, skip and a jump. In P. Reitsma, & L. Verhoeven (Eds.), Problems and interventions in literacy development (pp. 81–94). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I

The Netherlands

Principal investigator(s): Pieter Reitsma

Ralph Wesseling

Address: PI Research

PO Box 366

NL-1115 ZH Duivendrecht

THE NETHERLANDS

E-mail-address of the contact-person: p.reitsma@psy.vu.nl

Title of study:

Effects of computer-assissted training of blending skills in kindergarten children

Key words:

Computer-assisted training blending skills causal relationship between phonological skills and reading

Beginning date of study (month, year): 01-96

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 01-97

Number of completed waves: 4

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 4

Time interval between waves (average): about 4 mths.

Maximum sample size: 161

Size of core sample: 98

Age range at first data collection: 62 - 83 mths. (mean 5;10 yrs.)

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: no

Intervention study: yes

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups: 1

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups: 2

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

12 weeks effectively, taking into account other school activities and holidays the total period amounted to 4 months

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

rather intense and individualized computer-assisted 10-min training sessions two times a week.

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

Vocabulary (receptive)

estimating vocabulary knowledge

Early letter/reading knowledge

determine the extent to which kindergartners without explicit instruction had acquired knowledge about letter-sounds and skills to read

Phoneme segmentation

determine the skill in phoneme segmentation

Phoneme blending

determine the skill in phoneme blending

Classroom teaching

a questionnaire and structured interview to determine a.o. the extent in which kindergarten teachers devoted attention to the development of phonological skills.

Decoding

reading aloud a list of printed words

Spelling

spelling 15 simple words that were dictated orally.

 

 

Abstract:

Training prereaders in phonological skills has been shown to facilitate the acquisition of literacy skills. The question was raised whether it would be possible to use computer-based exercises to increase blending skills in Dutch kindergarten children who had not yet received reading instruction. A package of experimental computer exercises was used in which word materials, instructions and comments were provided through high quality digitised speech. Twenty-five children received specific training in blending separate letter sounds into words during a 12 week period, while their classmates (n=28) received training in vocabulary using the same computers and program. Yet another control group (n=45) from separate classes did not have access to the computer programs. All children appeared to improve in blending skill, and more so in classrooms where teachers regularly provide various activities to promote phonological skills. However, the results also reveal a significant additional effect due to the use of the computer program. Transfer effects of the computer-based exercises to decoding skill were found after a few months of beginning reading instruction.

Publications:

Reitsma, P. & Wesseling, R. (1998). Effect of computer–assisted training of blending skills in kindergartens. Scientific Studies of Reading, 2, 301–320.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

The Netherlands

Principal investigator(s):

L. Verhoeven

Address: School of Education

Montessorilaan 3

NL-6525 HR Nijmegen

THE NETHERLANDS

E-mail-address of the contact-person: l.verhoeven@ped.kun.nl

Title of study:

Acquisition of literacy in a second language.

Key words:

word recognition reading comprehension reading strategies metalinguistic abilities

Beginning date of study (month, year): 09-84

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 07-86

Number of completed waves: 3

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 3

Time interval between waves (average): 1 yr.

Maximum sample size: 125

Size of core sample: 100

Age range at first data collection: 6 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

 

phonology Turkish

 

syntax Turkish

 

lexicon Turkish

 

phonology Dutch

 

syntax Dutch

 

lexicon Dutch

 

metalinguistic awareness

 

word decoding Turkish

 

reading comprehension Turkish

 

word decoding Dutch

 

reading comprehension Dutch

 

 

Abstract:

The purpose of the study was to investigate differences in reading comprehension processes between children learning to read in their native language and children learning to read in their second language. The results showed that second language learners are less efficient in various reading processes than their monolingual peers. However, there was evidence from both word recognition and reading comprehension tasks that first and second language learners rely on highly comparable strategies.

Publications:

Verhoeven, L. (1987) Ethnic minority children acquiring literacy. Berlin: Mouton/DeGruyter.

Verhoeven, L. (1990). Acquisition of reading in a second language. Reading Research Quarterly, 25, 90-114.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I

The Netherlands

Principal investigator(s): L. Verhoeven

Address: School of Education

Montessorilaan 3

NL-6525 HR Nijmegen

THE NETHERLANDS

E-mail-address of the contact-person: l.verhoeven@ped.kun.nl

Title of study:

Acquisition of early literacy in different sociocultural settings.

Key words:

acquisition of literacy SES phonological awareness

Beginning date of study (month, year): 09-88

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 07-95

Number of completed waves: 6

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 6

Time interval between waves (average): 1 yr.

Maximum sample size: 150

Size of core sample: 100

Age range at first data collection: 4 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: yes (in kindergarten)

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups: 2

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups: 1

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month): 5 mths.

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month): 1 hr./day

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

 

receptive vocabulary

 

productive vocabulary

 

formal definitions

 

narrative construction

 

word objectivation

 

word awareness

 

syllabic synthesis

 

phonemic synthesis

 

phonemic segmentation

 

book orientation

 

reading concepts

 

grapheme knowledge

 

word decoding

 

reading comprehension

 

 

Abstract:

Study aimed at exploring literacy acquisition in diverse groups of learners: Dutch high SES, Dutch low SES, and minority children low SES. During kindergarten the effects of two types of intervention were also examined: transactional storybook reading and language games vs direct instruction of vocabulary and metalinguistic awareness. The results showed effects of the former type of intervention on narrative construction and word awareness, and of the latter type of intervention on phonological awareness.

Publications:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

The Netherlands

Principal investigator(s): L. Verhoeven

Address: School of Education

Montessorilaan 3

NL-6525 HR Nijmegen

THE NETHERLANDS

E-mail-address of the contact-person: l.verhoeven@ped.kun.nl

Title of study:

Monitoring literacy acquisition during primary school in the Netherlands.

Key words:

acquisition of literacy primary school metalinguistic abilities reading comprehension

Beginning date of study (month, year): 09-88

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 07-94

Number of completed waves: 12

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 12

Time interval between waves (average): ½ yr.

Maximum sample size: 2100

Size of core sample:

Age range at first data collection: 6 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

 

phonemic awareness

 

grapheme knowledge

 

oral language

 

word decoding

 

vocabulary

 

word spelling

 

reading comprehension

 

 

Abstract:

The study aims at describing children’s literacy acquisition in the course of primary school. An attempt is made to relate children’s oral proficiency, metalinguistic awareness, word (de)coding and reading comprehension in the course of time by using linear equation modeling.

Publications:

Verhoeven, L. Components in early reading and spelling. (submitted for publication).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

The Netherlands

Principal investigator(s): L. Verhoeven

W. van Elsacker

Address: School of Education

Montessorilaan 3

NL-6525 HR Nijmegen

THE NETHERLANDS

E-mail-address of the contact-person: l.verhoeven@ped.kun.nl

Title of study:

Acquisition of reading comprehension, reading strategies and reading motivation.

Key words:

Reading comprehension reading strategies reading motivation SES

Beginning date of study (month, year): 09-96

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 07-98

Number of completed waves: 3

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 3

Time interval between waves (average): 1 yr.

Maximum sample size: 800

Size of core sample: 700

Age range at first data collection: 8 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: yes

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

 

word decoding

 

oral language comprehension

 

vocabulary

 

reading strategies

 

reading motivation

 

 

Abstract:

The study aims at examining the relationship between reading comprehension, use of reading strategies, and reading motivation in different sociocultural groups: Dutch high SES, Dutch low SES, ex-colonial children and Mediterranean children. Data are in the process of analysis.

Publications:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

The Netherlands

Principal investigator(s): L. Verhoeven

A. Vermeer

J. Stoep

Address: School of Education

Montessorilaan 3

NL-6525 HR Nijmegen

THE NETHERLANDS

E-mail-address of the contact-person: l.verhoeven@ped.kun.nl

Title of study:

Acquisition of language and literacy.

Key words:

acquisition of literacy oral language development SES

Beginning date of study (month, year): 09-95

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 07-00

Number of completed waves: 5

Total number of waves (at the end of the study):

Time interval between waves (average): 1 yr.

Maximum sample size: 900

Size of core sample: 750

Age range at first data collection: 4 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

 

auditory discrimination

 

articulation

 

vocabulary

 

morphology

 

sentence comprehension

 

sentence imitation

 

oral text comprehension

 

oral text production

 

phonological awareness

 

book orientation

 

grapheme knowledge

 

word decoding

 

reading comprehension

 

 

Abstract:

The study aims at relating children’s oral language and literacy development in the age range between 4 and 8. Three representative groups are followed: Dutch high SES, Dutch low SES, and minority children. The data are now being analyzed.

Publications:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

UK

Principal investigator(s):

Dorothy V.M. Bishop

C. Adams

Address: MRC Applied Psychology Research Unit

15, Chaucer Road

UK- Cambridge, CB2 2EF

UNITED KINGDOM

E-mail-address of the contact-person:

Title of study:

Prospective study of the relationship between specific language impairment, phonological disorders and reading retardation

Key words:

language abilities reading and spelling prediction of reading and spelling

Beginning date of study (month, year): 1986

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 1988

Number of completed waves: 4

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 4

Time interval between waves (average): 1 - 3 yrs.

Maximum sample size: 88

Size of core sample: 83

Age range at first data collection: 3;9 - 8;6 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers?

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

WISC-R subtests: picture completion, block design (Wechsler, 1974)

non-verbal ability

BPVS: The British Picture Vocabulary Scale (Dunn, Dunn, Whetton & Pintilie, 1982)

receptive vocabulary

TROG: The Test for Reception of Grammar (Bishop, 1989)

understanding of grammatical contrast

BAS verbal comprehension subtest (Elliott, Murray & Pearson, 1978)

general comprehension

Newcastle speech assessment

expressive phonology

BAS naming vocabulary subtest

expressive vocabulary

Action Picture Test (Renfrew, 1966) & the Bus Story Test (Renfrew, 1969)

mean length of utterance (MLU), expression of semantic relations

WISC-R verbal comprehension subtest (test 8-13 for the follow-up sample at 8;6 years)

general comprehension

Word-Finding Vocabulary Scale (Renfrew, 1980)

expressive phonology, expressive vocabulary

The Not Now Bernard Story, modified

MLU, expression of semantic relations

Neale Analysis of Reading Ability, form C (Neale, 1966)

reading ability

The Graded Word Spelling Test (Vernon, 1977)

spelling

non-words reading and spelling

non-word spelling and reading

 

 

Abstract:

Language and literacy skills were assessed in 83 8,5 year-olds whose language development had been impaired at 4 years of age. Provided that language problems had resolved by age 5,5 years, literacy development was normal, but many of the children who still had verbal deficits at 5,5 years of age did have reading difficulties and persisting oral language impairments later on. In these children, reading comprehension tended to be poor relative to reading accuracy. Syntactic competence in the pre-school period accounted for a substantial proportion of the variance in literacy attainments, after allowing for the effects of non-verbal ability. There were only weak links between expressive phonological disorders and later ability to read either meaningful text or non-words.

Publications:

Bishop, D.V.M. (1985). Spelling ability in congenital dysarthria: evidence against articulatory coding in translating between phonemes and graphemes. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 2, 229-251.

Bishop, D.V.M. (1989). Test for reception of grammar (2nd edn). Published by the author at Department of Psychology, University of Manchester, Manchester.

Bishop, D.V.M. & Adams, C. (1990). Prospective study of the relationship between specific language impairment, phonological disorders and reading retardation. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 31, 1027-1050.

Bishop, D.V.M. & Butterworth, G.E. (1979). A longitudinal study using the WPPSI and WISC-R with an English sample. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 49, 156-168.

Bishop, D.V.M. & Butterworth, G.E. (1980). Verbal-performance discrepancies: relationship to birth risk and specific reading retardation. Cortex, 16, 375-389.

Bishop, D.V.M. & Edmundson, A. (1987a). Language-impaired 4-year-olds: distinguishing transient from persistent impairment. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 52, 156-173.

Bishop, D.V.M. & Edmundson, A. (1987b). Specific language impairment as a maturational lag: evidence from longitudinal data on language and motor development. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 29, 442-459.-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

As the authors could not answer the questionnaire, all information was gathered from the authors´ publications.

I

UK

Principal investigator(s):

Greg Brooks

Tom Gorman

Anne Wilkin

Dougal Hutchison

Address: National Foundation for Educational Research

The Mere, Upton Park

UK-Slough SL1 2DQ

UNITED KINGDOM

E-mail-address of the contact-person: g.brooks@nfer.ac.uk

Title of study:

Evaluation of family literacy

Key words:

family literacy intergenerational study language abilities early literacy development areas of multiple deprivation

Beginning date of study (month, year): 01-94

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 03-97

Number of completed waves: 5

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 5

Time interval between waves (average): 9 mths.

Maximum sample size: 392

Size of core sample: 150

Age range at first data collection: 3 - 6 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? yes

Type of study:

Correlation study: no

Intervention study: yes

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups: 1

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups: 0

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month): 12 weeks

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month): 8 hrs./week

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test

to measure vocabulary development

Reading Recognition Subtest of the Peabody Individual Achievement Tests

to measure early reading development

Emergent writing

to measure early writing progress

 

 

Abstract:

Aim: to measure progress in vocabulary and early literacy of children in areas of multiple deprivation who were given intensive pre-school provision with their mothers

Sample: 361 mothers and 392 children in Cardiff, Liverpool, Norfolk and North Tyneside. Children were aged 3 years 0 months-6 years 11 months at start of treatment. All mothers had poor literacy levels. All participants were volunteers.

Procedure: Children were pre-tested at beginning at treatment, and post-tested at 4 points: end of treatment, 12 weeks after end of treatment, 9 months after end of treatment, and 20-34 months after end of treatment.

Treatment: Mothers and children attended 8 hours per week for 12 weeks, in one of the 4 school terms from Summer 1994 to Summer 1995. There were two 3-hour sessions per week in which children received Early Years education appropriate to their age, while the mothers received tuition to improve their own literacy and their ability to help their children. There was also one 2-hour session per week in which children and mothers came together, and mothers tried out (under supervision) what they had been learning about how to help their children and received immediate feedback.

Results: Mothers made progress in reading and writing during the treatment, and sustained that improvement at least up to 9 months afterwards. Most went on to further study, and many gained employment. Children made progress in emergent writing, vocabulary, and early reading during the treatment, and in the first 12 weeks after treatment, and sustained the gains thereafter. The children’s gains in vocabulary and early reading were statistically significant on standardised tests, and therefore greater than would have been expected from ‘normal’ learning and development.

Publications:

BROOKS, G., GORMAN, T.P., HARMAN, J., HUTCHISON, D. and WILKIN, A. (1996). Family Literacy Works: The NFER Evaluation of the Basic Skills Agency’s Family Literacy Demonstration Programmes. London: Basic Skills Agency.

GORMAN, T.P. and BROOKS, G. (1996). Assessing Young Children’s Writing: A Step by Step Guide. London: Basic Skills Agency.

BROOKS, G. (1997). ‘Vrijednost Britanskog programa obiteljskog opismenjivanja.’ (The effectiveness of the British Family Literacy programmes.) Hrcak (‘The Hamster’, journal of the Croatian Reading Association), 1, 4, 4-6.

BROOKS, G., GORMAN, T.P., HARMAN, J., HUTCHISON, D., KINDER, K., MOOR, H. and WILKIN, A. (1997). Family Literacy Lasts: The NFER Follow-up Study of the Basic Skills Agency’s Demonstration Programmes. London: Basic Skills Agency.

BROOKS, G. (1998) ‘The effectiveness for parents of family literacy programmes in England and Wales.’ Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 42, 2, 130-2.

I

UK

Principal investigator(s): Greg Brooks

Address: National Foundation for Educational Research

The Mere, Upton Park

UK-Slough SL1 2DQ

UNITED KINGDOM

E-mail-address of the contact-person: g.brooks@nfer.ac.uk

Title of study:

Evaluation of POPAT (Programme Of Phoneme Awareness Training)

Key words:

phonological awareness acquisition of literacy phonics approach

Beginning date of study (month, year): 09-96

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 06-98

Number of completed waves: 5

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 6

Time interval between waves (average): 6 mths.

Maximum sample size: 300

Size of core sample: 200

Age range at first data collection: 4;0 - 5;0 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? yes

Type of study:

Correlation study: no

Intervention study: yes

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups: 2

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups: 1

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month): 33 mths.

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month): 2 hrs./week

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

Bury Infant Check

to establish baseline (1996)

British Picture Vocabulary Scale

to measure vocabulary (1996, 97, 98, 99)

British Ability Scales Word Recognition Test

to measure reading (1997, 98, 99)

Symbols

cognitive measure, additional baseline

Phoneme Awareness Test

to catch development of phonemic awareness (1996, 97 (twice), 98)

Emergent Writing

further measure of literacy development (1996, 97, 98, 99)

Birmingham Baseline Assessment

further baseline measure, to help equate samples (1998)

Spelling Test

further literacy measure (1997, 98, 99)

Key Stage 1 (age 7) National Tests

extra outcome measure (1999)

 

 

Abstract:

Aim: to measure the impact of a programme (POPAT) designed to improve the phonological skills of children entering primary school, and hence their early literacy learning

Sample: 300 children were pre-tested early in the school year 1996/97, at age 4:06-5:00. 200 were in POPAT schools. There were 3 ‘old’ schools, which been using POPAT for some time, and 3 ‘new’ schools, using it for the first time. A comparison sample of 100 children were in 3 ‘control’ schools – these had rejected POPAT and were continuing to use their preferred initial literacy methods, with a heavy emphasis on phonics.

Procedure: 6 instruments were used in the pre-test (t1), to establish the equivalence of the samples. Subsequently, the Phoneme Awareness Test used at pre-test was used on 3 further occasions (t2, t3, t4). At t3 and t5, 2 other instruments (measuring vocabulary and writing development) were repeated from pre-test. Also at t3 and t5, 2 further instruments (measuring reading and spelling) were added. At t6 (Summer 1999) the instruments used at t5 will be repeated, and the children’s national test results (reading, writing, mathematics) at age 7 will be obtained.

Treatment: POPAT is a carefully constructed system for developing young children’s awareness of phonemes. In the initial stage, the children do not vocalise – they listen to the teacher producing real-world sounds which are analogues of 18 of the consonant phonemes of English, and learn to associate these reliably with pictures (not words) representing those sounds (phoneme identification). In further stages, the children learn to recognise these phonemes in single-syllable words which are again represented by pictures, and to place the sound-pictures in correct relation to the object-pictures (phoneme segmentation and sequencing). Gradually, letters are introduced and the pictures replaced. Later, children learn to analyse complex vocalic phonemes and to classify their various spellings.

Results: Interim results show POPAT making significantly faster progress in phoneme awareness than controls.

Publications:

(none publicly available yet)

I

UK

Principal investigator(s): Greg Brooks

Julia Shay

Janet Cross

Address: National Foundation for Educational Research

The Mere, Upton Park

UK-Slough SL1 2DQ

UNITED KINGDOM

E-mail-address of the contact-person: g.brooks@nfer.ac.uk

Title of study:

Evaluation of PEEP (Peers Early Education Partnership)

Key words:

birth to school entry language abilities early literacy development community study

Beginning date of study (month, year): 02-98

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 04-99

Number of completed waves: 1

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 6

Time interval between waves (average): 12 mths.

Maximum sample size: 600

Size of core sample: 600

Age range at first data collection: soon after birth

Data computerized? no

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: no

Intervention study: yes

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups: 1

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups: 1

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month): 5 yrs.

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month): 2 hrs./week

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

Because this longitudinal study (studying children from birth to age 5, school entry) is still in a very early stage (first children were born on 1st April 1998, youngest are not yet born) the instruments relevant (which will be administered to the children at ages 4 & 5) are not all decided yet. However, they will include the following:

 

Emergent Writing

first literacy measure (2000-1, 01-2, 02-3, 03-4)

British Picture Vocabulary Scale

vocabulary development (2001-2, 02-3, 03-4)

a reading test

literacy (2002-3, 03-4)

a spelling test

literacy (2003-04)

Baseline Assessment

standardised measure of language & literacy on entry to school at age 5 (2003-4)

 

 

Abstract:

Aim: to measure the impact of a community-based birth-to-school-entry programme on the language and early literacy development of children in a deprived area

Sample: 300 children born between 1 April 1998 and 31 March 1999 to families in the study area: Blackbird Leys and Littlemore, south Oxford, England. Also 300 children born between the same dates in the comparison area: Banbury, Oxfordshire, England. In the Oxford sample about two thirds of families are attending PEEP sessions, one third not. Both areas suffer from multiple deprivation.

Procedure: Data will be gathered 6 times, first soon after the baby’s birth, then close to each birthday, up to age 5. The method is one-to-one interview, usually in the home. At ‘birth’ (1998-99) and first birthday (1999-2000), information is collected from the mother. Later (2000-04), information will be gathered on the child’s linguistic and social development. From age 3 (2001-02) this will include early literacy development. At school entry at age 5 (2003-04) the children’s Baseline Assessment (school entry) results will also be obtained.

Treatment: Mothers in the study area are offered the chance to take part in weekly sessions designed to help them with the social, health and linguistic development of their child. There are 5 yearly stages of the programme, covering the range from 6 weeks to 5 years of age, and families may take part in all 5 stages, or fewer, or none. About 50 per cent of families attend sessions. Those who decline to attend sessions are offered home support visits and materials. A few families refuse all forms of PEEP support.

This is no such programme in the comparison area.

Results: Data from the mothers of babies born in the first six months of the programme show that the experimental and comparison samples of mothers are very similar, except that the Oxford mothers are slightly poorer but also slightly better educated.

Publications:

(none publicly available yet)

 

 

C

UK

Principal investigator(s): Greg Brooks

A.K. Pugh

Ian Schagen

Address: National Foundation for Educational Research

The Mere, Upton Park

UK-Slough SL1 2DQ

UNITED KINGDOM

E-mail-address of the contact-person: g.brooks@nfer.ac.uk

Title of study:

Reading performance at nine

Key words:

reading acquisition of literacy attitudes

Beginning date of study (month, year): 09-94

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 05-96

Number of completed waves: 2

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 2

Time interval between waves (average): 12 mths.

Maximum sample size: 1504

Size of core sample: 1504

Age range at first data collection: 7;06 - 8;06 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? yes

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other: Monitoring survey of reading attainment which included a longitudinal element

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

Reading Ability Series Level A

used to measure reading attainment at age 8 in 1995

Reading Ability Series Level B

used to measure reading attainment at age 9 in 1996

IEA Reading Literacy Population A Tests, 1991

used for international comparison at age 9 in 1996

Attitudes to reading questionnaires

to measure attitudes at age 9 in 1996

 

 

Abstract:

Aim: to establish level of reading attainment of a nationally representative sample of 9-year-old children in England and Wales; to compare their performance with that of 9-year-olds in 27 other countries; and to estimate their progress in reading from age 8

Sample: 1504 children aged 8 years 6 months-9 years 6 months, stratified random sample of Year 4 (grade 3) children in England and Wales

Procedure: This was a monitoring survey. Children were tested on Reading Ability Series level B in March 1996. They had been tested on Reading Ability Series level A in March 1995. The dependent variable was differences in standardised scores.

Also, these children and 300 others were given the Population A (age 9) reading test from the 1991 IEA Reading Literacy study.

Results: The key findings were that

* the average score on the international test would have put England and Wales close to the overall average in the 1991 study, within a group of 13 countries whose average scores did not differ significantly;

* the average score for England and Wales on the international test was lowered by (among other factors) a 'long tail' of pupils who achieved scores well below the average; and

* the pupils tested in both 1995 and 1996 appeared to have made slower progress, on average, in the intervening 12 months than children did when the tests were standardised in 1987.

Publications:

BROOKS, G., PUGH, A.K. and SCHAGEN, I. (1996). Reading Performance at Nine. Slough: NFER.

BROOKS, G., SCHAGEN, I. and NASTAT, P. (1997). Trends in Reading at Eight. Slough: NFER.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

UK

Principal investigator(s):

Peter Bryant

Terezinha Nunes

Address: University of Oxford

Department of Experimental Psychology

South Parkes Road

UK- Oxford, OX1 3UD

UNITED KINGDOM

E-mail-address of the contact-person: peter.bryant@psy.ox.ac.uk

Title of study:

Morphological awareness and spelling

Key words:

morphological awareness reading and spelling

Beginning date of study (month, year):

Date of latest data collection (month, year):

Number of completed waves: 9

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 9

Time interval between waves (average): 3 mths.

Maximum sample size: 365

Size of core sample: approx. 340

Age range at first data collection: 6 - 9 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

Word analogy

assessment of morpho-syntactic awareness

Sentence analogy

assessment of morpho-syntactic awareness

Production morphology

assessment of morpho-syntactic awareness

Word classification

awareness of grammatical categories

Spelling words

phonological and morphological strategies in spelling

Spelling pseudo-words

phonological and morphological strategies in spelling

Interpreting pseudo-words

use of morphological strategies to deduce meaning

Schonell reading and spelling

standardized assessment of word reading and spelling

WISC

Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children (control)

Phonological awareness

awareness of phonemes

 

 

Abstract:

The spelling of many words in English and other orthographies involves patterns determined by morphology (e.g. ed in past regular verbs). The authors report a longitudinal study that shows that when children first adopt such spelling patterns, they do so with little regard for their morphological basis. They generalize the patterns to grammatically inappropriate words (e.g. sofed for soft). Later these generalizations are confined to the right grammatical category (e.g. keped for kept) and finally to the right group of words (regular verbs). The authors conclude that children first see these spelling patterns merely as exceptions to the phonetic system and later grasp their grammatical significance. The study included two new measures of grammatical awareness, both involving analogies, that predicted success with spelling inflectional morphemes in later sessions.

Publications:

Nunes, T. (1998). Developing children's minds through literacy and numeracy. An inaugural lecture. London: Institute of Education.

Bryant, P. E. & Nunes, T. (1998). Learning about the orthography: A cross-linguistic approach. In S. G. Paris & H. M. Wellman (Eds.), Global prospects for education. Development, culture, and schooling (pp. 171-192). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Bryant, P., Nunes, T., & Bindman, M. (1998). Awareness of language in children who have reading difficulties: Historical comparisons in a longitudinal study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 39, 501-510.

Bryant, P., Devine, M., Ledward, A., & Nunes, T. (1997). Spelling with apostrophes and understanding possession. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 67, 91-110.

Nunes, T., Bryant, P., & Bindman, M. (1997). Morphological spelling strategies: Developmental stages and processes. Developmental Psychology, 33, 4, 637-649.

Bryant, P. E., Nunes, T., & Bindman, M. (1997). Backward readers' awareness of language: strengths and weaknesses. European Journal of Educational Psychology, 12, 357-372.

Nunes, T., Bryant, P. E., & Bindman, M. (1997). Learning to spell regular and irregular verbs. Reading and Writing, 9, 427-449.

Nunes, T., Bryant, P. E., & Bindman, M. (1997). Spelling and grammar. The necsed move. In C. Perfetti, L. Rieben, and M. Fayol (Eds.). Learning to spell. Research, theory, and practice across languages (pp. 151-170). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Bryant, P. E., Nunes, T., & Bindman, M. (1997). Children's understanding of the connection between grammar and spelling. In B. Blachman (Ed.). Linguistic underpinnings of reading (pp. 219-240). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Nunes, T., Bryant, P. E., & Bindman, M. (1997). Orthographe et grammaire. In L. Rieben, M. Fayol, & C. Perfetti (Eds.), Des orthographes et leur acquisition (pp. 101-124). Paris: Delachaux et Niestle.

Nunes, T., Bryant, P. E., & Bindman, M. (1996). E quem se preocupa com a ortografia? (Who worries about spelling?) In C. Cardoso-Martins (Ed.), Consciencia fonologica e alfabetizacao (pp. 129-158). Petropolis (Brazil): Editora Vozes.

Nunes, T. (1996). O desenvolvimento da consciencia sintatica e da ortografia. In T. O. M. de Souza (Ed.). Quem e o professor do terceiro milenio?, pp.23-30. Salvador: Avante.

 

 

C

UK

Principal investigator(s):

Marketa Caravolas

Maggie Snowling

Charles Hulme

Address: University of York

Department of Psychology

Heslington, York, Y010 5DD

UNITED KINGDOM

E-mail-address of the contact-person: m.caravolas@psych.york.ac.uk

Title of study:

The relationship between phonology and orthography in early spelling development.

Key words:

Spelling acquisition phonological representations prediction of reading and spelling

Beginning date of study (month, year): 09-97

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 02-99

Number of completed waves: 3

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 3

Time interval between waves (average): 6 mths.

Maximum sample size: 160

Size of core sample: 150

Age range at first data collection: 4;6 - 5;6 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

BPVS

verbal IQ

RAVENS

non-verbal IQ

Test of letter knowledge: names, sounds

aspect of literacy knowledge

Test of phoneme awareness: final phoneme isolation

phonological awareness

verbal span

short term memory span for verbal information

visual span

short term memory span for non-verbal information

coding (WISC III)

graphomotor speed measure

BAS-Word Reading

reading measure

spelling test

single word spellings

AXB - phoneme discrimination / categorization

perception-based speech sound categorization task

picture sorting tests: phoneme awareness categorization task

production-based p.a. task

speed of letter writing

automaticity of letter-sound associations

 

 

Abstract:

This is a longitudinal study of spelling development involving a large cohort of British-English-speaking children. The aim of the project is to elucidate the relationships between children´s developing lexical phonology and emergent spelling skills. Children´s spellings of a large corpus of monosyllabic words are being monitored over the first year of schooling. More specifically the test words contain phonological units and structures which are known to pose difficulty to young spellers of English, and, the children´s progress in learning to represent the target units in spelling is being documented. The spelling productions are being analysed in order to assess the extent to which children´s phonemic representations are reflected in early spelling and conversely how the acquisition of orthographic representations impacts on phonological representations. At the same time, the children´s performance on oral phonological awareness tasks as well as on a range of verbal and non-verbal tasks potentially related to spelling development is being assessed. The results are being analysed in order to uncover the role of verbal/phonological skills and of non-verbal/visual skills in emergent spelling achievement. The study is also designed to shed light on the patterns of phonological and spelling development in poor and dyslexic spellers.

Publications:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

UK

Principal investigator(s):

Uta Frith

Maggie Snowling

Address: UCL

Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience

12 Queen Square

UK-London, WC1N3AR

UNITED KINGDOM

E-mail-address of the contact-person: u.frith@ucl.ac.uk

Title of study:

Children at genetic risk for dyslexia from age 3 to 8 years.

Key words:

genetic risk language abilities letter knowledge acquisition of literacy

Beginning date of study (month, year): 01-94

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 04-99

Number of completed waves: 2

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 3

Time interval between waves (average): 2 yrs.

Maximum sample size: 70+40

Size of core sample: 60+30

Age range at first data collection: 45 mths.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

Standard IQ-tests

 

Standard literacy tests

 

Standard language tests

 

Standard motor tests

 

Standard behavior checklists

 

Experimental tests

 

Experimental questionnaires

 

 

 

Abstract:

We have studied the literacy skills of 63 children at genetic risk of dyslexia compared with 34 children from families reporting no history of reading impairment. All participating families came from the same (high) socio-economic strata and had the same (high) level of education. This selection was done to minimise socio-environmental causes for developmental reading problems. We are currently testing the children at age 8. We found that 57% of the at risk group were delayed in literacy development at 6 years compared with only 12% of the controls. The ´unimpaired´ at risk group were indistinguishable from the controls on cognitive and language measures at 45 months while the literacy-delayed group showed slow speech and language development although they did not differ from the controls in non-verbal ability. Letter knowledge at 45 months was the strongest predictor of literacy level at 6 years. In addition, early speech and language skills predicted individual differences in literacy outcome and genetic risk accounted for unique variance over and above these factors.

Publications:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

UK

Principal investigator(s):

Susan E. Gathercole

Alan D. Baddeley

Address: University of Bristol

Dept of Experimental Psychology

8, Woodland Road

UK- Bristol, BS8 1TN

UNITED KINGDOM

E-mail-address of the contact-person:

Title of study:

Phonological working memory: a critical building block for reading development and vocabulary acquisition?

Key words:

phonological memory skills vocabulary reading acquisition

Beginning date of study (month, year):

Date of latest data collection (month, year): published 1993

Number of completed waves: 4

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 4

Time interval between waves (average): 1 yr. (between 1st, 2nd & 3rd wave), 2 yrs. (betwe

Maximum sample size: 118

Size of core sample: 80

Age range at first data collection: 4 - 8 yrs.

Data computerized? no

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

nonword repetition test (Gathercole & Baddeley, 1990a; Gathercole et al., 1991)

phonological memory skill

 

non-verbal intelligence

 

receptive vocabulary

 

reading

 

 

Abstract:

We review findings from a recent longitudinal study of the contribution of phonological working memory to vocabulary acquisition and reading development. A total of 80 children were tested initially at school entry at the age of four years, and were tested in three further waves at ages 5, 6 and 8 years. The results indicate that phonological memory skills constrain vocabulary growth during the first year or so in school but that subsequently, vocabulary knowledge is a pacemaker in the development relationship with memory. Phonological memory skill in prereading children was found to be significantly linked with scores on a reading test at age 8 which encourages the use of a phonological recoding strategy. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings, and important areas for future research, are discussed.

Publications:

Baddeley, A.D. (1978). Working memory and reading. In P.A. Kolers, M.E. Wrolstad, & H. Bouma (Eds.), Processing of Visible Language, Vol.1, (pp. 355-370). New York: Plenum Press.

Baddeley, A.D. & Gathercole, S.E. (1992). Learning to read: The role of the phonological loop. In J. Alegria, D. Holander, J.J. de Morais & M. Radeau (Eds.), Analytic Approaches to Human Cognition, (pp. 153-168). Elsevier.

Gathercole, S.E. & Adams, A.-M. (1993). Phonological working memory in very young children. Developmental Psychology, 29, 770-778.

Gathercole, S.E. & Baddeley, A.D. (1989). Evaluation of the role of phonological STM in the development of vocabulary in children: a longitudinal study. Journal of Memory & Language, 28, 200-213.

Gathercole, S.E. & Baddeley, A.D. (1990a). Phonological memory deficits in language disordered children: Is there a causal connection? Journal of Memory & Language, 29, 336-360.

Gathercole, S.E. & Baddeley, A.D. (1990b). The role of phonological memory in vocabulary acquisition: a study of young children learning arbitrary names of toys. British Journal of Psychology, 81, 439-454.

Gathercole, S.E. & Baddeley, A.D. (1993). Phonological working memory: A critical building block for reading development and vocabulary acquisition?

Gathercole, S.E. & Baddeley, A.D. (1993). Working memory and language processing. Hove: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Gathercole, S.E., Willis, C.S. & Baddeley, A.D. (1991). Differentiating phonological memory and awareness of rhyme: Reading and vocabulary development in children. British Journal of Psychology, 82, 387-406.

Gathercole, S.E., Willis, C., Emslie, H. & Baddeley, A. (1991). The influences of number of syllables and word-likeness on children´s repetition of nonwords. Applied Psycholinguistics, 12, 349-367.

Gathercole, S.E., Willis, C., Emslie, H. & Baddeley, A. (1992). Phonological memory and vocabulary development during the early school years: A longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 28, 887-898.

Gathercole, S.E., Willis, C., Emslie, H. & Baddeley, A. (in prep.). Phonological memory skill in prereading children as a predictor of later reading achievement.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

As the authors could not answer the questionnaire, all information was gathered from the authors´ publications.

C

UK

Principal investigator(s):

Jean Golding

Michael Beveridge

Peter Bryant

Address: University of Bristol

24 Tyndall´s Avenue

UK – Bristol BS8 IBR

UNITED KINGDOM

E-mail-address of the contact-person: jean.golding@bristol.ac.uk

Title of study:

ALSPAC (The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children).

Key words:

genetic risk child behaviour visual information processing hearing

Beginning date of study (month, year): 09-90

Date of latest data collection (month, year): ongoing

Number of completed waves: 16

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): not yet decided

Time interval between waves (average): 2-3 yrs. for reading; 1 yr. for spelling

Maximum sample size: 14000

Size of core sample: approx. 8500

Age range at first data collection: pregnancy

Data computerized? yes (mostly)

Are data accessible to other researchers? yes

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

   
   
   

 

Abstract:

The ALSPAC study is designed to assess the ways in which the environment interacts with the genetic composition of the developing child to result in, on the one part, maximising the potential of the child and on the other causing disorder. Among the information being assessed are the factors that are related to reading and spelling ability.

The study enrolment occurred during the pregnancy of eligible pregnant mothers (i.e. resident in the Avon area with expected date of delivery between 1st April 1991 and 31st December 1992). Information has been collected several times a year on the various features of the development of the child, the environment in which the child lives, features of parenting, day care and other factors that may have impacted on the child´s development. It is aimed to obtain school entry assessment records, and statutory 7 year test results for this cohort of children. In addition, the study is currently testing the children for reading, spelling and phoneme awareness using a one to one examination of the child at age approximately 7½ . At age 8½ the children will complete the WISC IQ test as well as tests of attention. Further tests of educational achievement will be undertaken at subsequent ages.

Data collection still proceeding. No current results.

Publications:

None yet on reading.

I

UK

Principal investigator(s):

Peter J. Hatcher

C. Hulme

A.W. Ellis

Address: University of York

Department of Psychology

UK – Y010 5DD Heslington, York

UNITED KINGDOM

E-mail-address of the contact-person: p.hatcher@psych.york.ac.uk

Title of study:

Ameliorating early reading failure by integrating the teaching of reading and phonological skills: The Phonological Linkage Hypothesis.

Key words:

reading phonological skills prediction of reading and spelling intelligence rhyme

Beginning date of study (month, year): 09-89

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 01-91

Number of completed waves: 3

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 3

Time interval between waves (average): 8 mths.

Maximum sample size: 124

Size of core sample: 124

Age range at first data collection: 7 - 8 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: no

Intervention study: yes

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups: 3

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups: 1

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month): 20 weeks spread over 25 weeks period

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month): 2x30 mins./week

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

Early Word Recognition (Hatcher)

To differentiate progress of children at early stages of word reading

British Ability Scales Word Reading (Test A)

Norm [?] measure of word recognition

Neale Analysis of Reading Ability (R) Form 1

To measure reading accuracy in context and comprehension

Nonword Reading Test (Hatcher)

To measure phonic decoding skills

Schonell [?] Word Spelling Test

To measure spelling ability

British Ability Scales Basic Number Skills Test (Test A)

To measure arithmetic skills

Sound Deletion Test (Hatcher)

To measure ability to delete sounds from spoken words

Sound Blending Test (Hatcher)

To measure ability to blend sounds into nonwords

Nonword Segmentation Test (Hatcher)

To measure ability to segment spoken nonwords into phonemes

Sound Categorization Test (after Bradley 1984)

To measure ability to recognize rhyme and alliteration in spoken words

Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children – Revised

To provide measures of verbal (vocabulary & similarities) and non-verbal ability (block design & object assembly)

Picture Naming (Snowling, van Wagtendonk & Stafford 1988)

To measure ability to name common objects

Recall of Designs (Hulme 1979)

To measure short term visual memory

Nonword Repetition (Hatcher)

To measure auditory-speech perception / articulatory-motor abilities

British Ability Scales Recall of Digits (Test A)

To measure verbal short-term memory

 

 

Abstract:

We present a longitudinal intervention study of children experiencing difficulties in the early stages of learning to read. Our subjects, 7-year-old poor readers, were divided into four matched groups and assigned to one of three experimental teaching conditions: Reading with phonology, Reading alone, Phonology alone, and a Control. Although the Phonology alone group showed most improvement on phonological tasks, the Reading with phonology group made most progress in reading. These results show that interventions to boost phonological skills need to be integrated with the teaching of reading if they are to be maximally effective in improving literacy skills.

Publications:

Hatcher, P.J., & Hulme, C. (1999) Phonemes, rhymes and intelligence as predictors of children’s responsiveness to remedial instruction: Evidence from a longitudinal intervention study. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 72, 130-153.

Hatcher, P.J. (1994). Sound linkage: An integrated programme for overcoming reading difficulties. London: Whurr.

Hatcher, P.J. (1996a). Practising sound links in reading intervention with the school age child. In M. Snowling and J. Stackhouse (Eds.) Dyslexia speech and language: A practitioner’s handbook. London: Whurr.

Hatcher, P.J. (1996b). A field study of the ‘Sound Linkage’ test of phonological awareness. Dyslexia Review, 8, 8-22.

Hatcher, P.J. (in press) Sound Links in Reading and Spelling with Discrepancy-defined Dyslexics and Children with Moderate Learning Difficulties. Reading and Writing.

Hatcher, P., Hulme, C. & Ellis, A. (1994). Ameliorating early reading failure by integrating the teaching of reading and phonological skills. Child Development, 65, 41-57.

Hatcher, P., Hulme, C. & Ellis, A. (1995). Helping to overcome early reading failure by combining the teaching of reading and phonological skills. In E. Funnell & M. Stuart (Eds.). Learning to read : Psychology in the classroom. Oxford, Blackwell.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I

UK

Principal investigator(s):

Lyn Layton

Karen Deeny

Graham Upton

Graham Tall

Address: University of Birmingham

School of Education

Edgbaston

UK- Birmingham B15 2TT

UNITED KINGDOM

E-mail-address of the contact-person: Fax: 0121 414 4865

Title of study:

Phonological awareness and the pre-school child.

Key words:

acquisition of literacy phonological awareness phonological training

Beginning date of study (month, year): 09-90

Date of latest data collection (month, year): published 1996

Number of completed waves: 3

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 3

Time interval between waves (average): 1 yr.

Maximum sample size: approx. 250

Size of core sample: approx. 250

Age range at first data collection: 3;6 - 7;6 yrs.

Data computerized? no

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: no

Intervention study: yes

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups: 1

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups: 1

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month): 42 days

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

nursery rhyme knowledge

rhyme awareness

rhyme detection

rhyme awareness

alliteration detection

alliteration awareness

The Coloured Progressive Matrices (Raven, 1984)

cognitive abilities

 

 

Abstract:

The study described here was set up to investigate the possibility of preventing written language difficulties through pre-school intervention. Specifically, the research question was designed to address the notions that a number of children develop literacy difficulties because they have poor phonological awareness and that origins of poor phonological awareness can be discovered in pre-school children. A key feature of the study was the design, implementation and evaluation of a phonological training pack for routine use in the nursery-classroom.

Phonological assessment of the children whose classroom routine had included activities from the training pack confirmed that a small proportion of the children still had difficulty in making phonological judgements, particularly rhyme judgements although their performance on non-phonological measures suggested that they did not have a generalised difficulty in responding to tests. These children were then allocated either to an experimental group or to a control group for further, intensive training. Those in the experimental group received individual training both in the skills which are thought to support phonological awareness and in making rhyme judgements. Meanwhile, children in the control group received individual training in categorisation skills without any special reference to phonological skills.

Post-intervention assessment of the alphabetic literacy skills of those children identified for intensive training was conducted when they were in years 1 and 2. The results of this follow-up assessment did not provide any conclusive evidence for the efficacy of intensive phonological training for pre-schoolers. However, a recurrent theme of the study was a commitment to translating research into classroom practice and many direct implications for this emerged from other outcomes of the study. Although focused on a specific research question the implementation was collaborative in style and was flexible enough to accommodate and respond to factors of everyday practice.

Publications:

Layton, L., Deeny, K., Upton, G. & Tall, G. (1996). Phonological awareness and the pre-school child. Technical Report, The University of Birmingham.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

As the authors could not answer the questionnaire, all information was gathered from the authors´ publications.

C

UK

Principal investigator(s):

Valerie Muter

Charles Hulme

Margaret Snowling

Address: University of York

Dept of Psychology

Heslington

UK- York, YO1 5DD

UNITED KINGDOM

E-mail-address of the contact-person:

Title of study:

Phonological, language and reading development in 4-6 year olds - a longitudinal study.

Key words:

phonological awareness reading language abilities memory

Beginning date of study (month, year): 09-97

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 11-98

Number of completed waves: 2

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 3

Time interval between waves (average): 1 yr.

Maximum sample size: 90-95

Size of core sample: 90-95

Age range at first data collection: 4 - 6 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? yes

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

BPVS

vocabulary

Phonological Abilities Test (PAT)

measures of rhyming, segmentation skill, letter knowledge, speech rate

BAS reading test

standardised reading measure

Hatcher Early Reading Test

experimental reading measure

Tunmer Syntactic Awareness Test

experimental measure of syntax

test of morpho-phonological endings

experimental language measure

word span

experimental verbal memory span test

Bradley Rhyme Oddity Test

measure of onset-rime awareness

 

 

Abstract:

This is a study of 90 or so 4-6 year olds, conducted longitudinally and seen at annual intervals with a total of 3 data collection points. The children are assessed on a range of experimental and standardised measures of phonological awareness, language (including measures of syntax, vocabulary, grammar), memory (including span, speech rate) and reading. The plan is to look at the inter-relationships between the language, phonological and memory measures, and to study their predictive relationship with early reading development. Results are to be analyzed next year (2000) using structural equation modelling.

Publications:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

UK

Principal investigator(s):

Rod Nicolson

Angela Fawcett

Address: University of Sheffield

Dept of Psychology

Western Bank

UK- Sheffield S10 2TP

UNITED KINGDOM

E-mail-address of the contact-person: a.fawcett@sheffield.ac.uk

Title of study:

Developmental dyslexia: Theory and practice.

Key words:

Automaticity balance and dyslexia cerebellum phonological memory skills motor skills learning speed

Beginning date of study (month, year): 02-89

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 06-99

Number of completed waves: 8/10

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 12

Time interval between waves (average): 1 yr.

Maximum sample size: 60

Size of core sample: not sure

Age range at first data collection: 12/13; 8/9 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? needs collating

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

DST (Dyslexia Screening Test)

Screening

WISC III / WISC-R, WAIS-R

Diagnosis of intellectual abilities

Word reading

Reading age / score (repeated)

Word spelling

Spelling age / score (repeated)

Schonell Reading

Single word reading (repeated)

Rosner Segmentation

Phonological skills

Non-word repetition

 

Tallal tests

 

Time estimation

 

Loudness estimation

 

Cerebellar test battery

 

Memory

 

Articulation

 

Balance / automaticity

 

Rhyming

 

Discrimination

 

 

 

Abstract:

In a research programme over the last decade, the Dyslexia research group in Sheffield (Nicolson and Fawcett, and their post-graduate students) have worked with a panel of dyslexic subjects and controls. The aim of the study has been to find the underlying cause/causes of dyslexia and use this knowledge to inform applied approaches to dyslexia. A wealth of data has been accumulated on these subjects in a series of published and unpublished studies. Further work is needed to collate the data, which includes subjects in three different age groups. A series of screening tests have been developed and published across the age range. These screening tests are now in use in a new longitudinal study of development aged 4 - 5;8.

Publications:

Fawcett, A.J. & Nicolson, R.I. (1994). Dyslexia in children: Multidisciplinary perspectives. Harvester Wheatsheaf, Hemel Hempstead.

Fawcett, A.J. & Nicolson, R.I. (1992). Automatisation deficits in balance for dyslexic children. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 75, 507-529.

Fawcett, A.J. & Nicolson, R.I. (1994). Naming speed in children with dyslexia. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 27, 271-276.

Fawcett, A.J. & Nicolson, R.I. (1995). Persistence of phonological awareness deficits in older children with dyslexia. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 7, 361-376.

Fawcett, A.J. & Nicolson, R.I. (1995). Time estimation deficits in developmental dyslexia: Evidence for cerebellar involvement. Proceedings of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences, 259, 43-47.

Fawcett, A.J. & Nicolson, R.I. (1996). Impaired performance of children with dyslexia on a range of cerebellar tasks. Annals of Dyslexia, 46, 259-283.

Nicolson, R.I. & Fawcett, A.J. (1996). The Dyslexia Early Screening Test. The Psychological Corporation, London.

Nicolson, R.I. & Fawcett, A.J. (1996). The Dyslexia Screening Test. The Psychological Corporation, London.

Nicolson, R.I. & Fawcett, A.J. (1996). The Dyslexia Adult Screening Test. The Psychological Corporation, London.

 

 

 

C

UK

Principal investigator(s):

Jane Oakhill

Peter Bryant

Kate Cain

Address: University of Sussex

Department of Experimental Psychology

Biology Building

UK-Brighton BN1 9QG

UNITED KINGDOM

E-mail-address of the contact-person: janeo@biols.susx.ac.uk

Title of study:

Children´s problems in reading comprehension: Questions of causality.

Key words:

reading comprehension word recognition inference-making working memory vocabulary intelligence phonological awareness comprehension skills syntactic awareness

Beginning date of study (month, year): 09-95

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 03-99

Number of completed waves: 3

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 3

Time interval between waves (average): 1 yr. (time 1 - time 2); 2 yrs. (time 2 - time 3)

Maximum sample size: 102

Size of core sample: approx. 80

Age range at first data collection: 7 - 8 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other: causal modelling

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

Neale Analysis of Reading Ability

a) word reading accuracy; b) reading comprehension

Gates-MacGuitie Sight-Vocabulary Test

sight vocabulary

British Picture Vocabulary Scales

receptive vocabulary

Test for Reception of Grammar

syntax

Wechsler Intelligence-Scales for Children: block design, object assembly, similarities, vocabulary

a) performance IQ; b) verbal IQ

NFER-NELSON Maths 9 Test

mathematical knowledge & problem solving

 

inference-making

 

comprehension monitoring

story anagram task, "[?]" task

story structure-knowledge

phoneme deletion task

phonological awareness

odd-one-cut task

phonological awareness

 

working memory

name reading questionnaire

reading habits in the home

 

 

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to map the development of reading comprehension in children aged 7-8 years at the start of the study, over a 4-year period. Specifically, we were interested to determine which skills associated with reading comprehension are causally related to the development of comprehension ability.

Children were assessed at three time points when aged 7-8 years, 8-9 years, and 10-11 years. At the beginning of the study, the sample comprised 102 children with average word reading skills. Within this sample, there was a wide range of comprehension skill, including children whose reading comprehension was poor relative to their word reading ability and those with average-good comprehension relative to their word reading.

Word reading and reading comprehension were assessed at each time point. In addition, a test battery including the following measures was given: assessments of comprehension-related skills: inference making ability, comprehension monitoring, and story structure knowledge; tests associated with word reading ability: phonological awareness; and other language-related assessments: IQ, vocabulary, syntax, working memory.

Our preliminary analysis of data from the first two waves reveals a strong dissociation between the tasks that predict word reading accuracy, both within and across time. We find inference making, comprehension monitoring and story structure knowledge predict unique variance in reading comprehension skill after the contributions made by vocabulary knowledge and IQ have been taken into account. For word reading skill, phonological awareness was the key predictor. In addition, we have demonstrated that, although working memory makes its own unique contribution to the prediction of reading comprehension, the other comprehension-related skills predict further unique variance.

Publications:

 

I

UK

Principal investigator(s):

Philip H.K. Seymour

Lynne G. Duncan

Address: University of Dundee

Department of Psychology

UK- Dundee DD1 4HN

UNITED KINGDOM

E-mail-address of the contact-person: l.g.duncan@dundee.ac.uk

Title of study:

Foundations of literacy.

Key words:

reading acquisition rhyme analogy models phonological awareness reading instruction

Beginning date of study (month, year): 04-91

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 06-95

Number of completed waves: 8

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 8

Time interval between waves (average): 3 mths.

Maximum sample size: 122

Size of core sample: 60

Age range at first data collection: 3;6 - 4;9 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: yes

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups: 5

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups: 3

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month): 3 mths.

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month): 3x20 min./week

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

British Picture Vocabulary Scale

receptive vocabulary

British Ability Scales (BAS): digit span

 

BAS word reading

 

BAS spelling

 

BAS (short form) IQ

phonological awareness

BAS matching letter-like shapes

phonological awareness

BAS visual recognition

phonological awareness

arithmetic test

 

letter knowledge

 

letter-group knowledge

 

logo recognition

 

reading scheme word reading

 

nonword reading

 

nonword spelling

 

rhyme and alliteration production

phonological awareness

rhyme and alliteration oddity

phonological awareness

sound blending and segmentation

phonological awareness

common unit task

phonological awareness

orthographic unit identification

orthographic awareness

analogy production

orthographic awareness

 

 

Abstract:

This longitudinal study spans three phases in emergent and early literacy in Britain: Nursery, Primary 1 and Primary 2. At the Nursery stage (age 4 years), intervention studies manipulate key variables from current theories of reading development, including phonological awareness (rhyme, phonemes), letter knowledge, and sight vocabulary. Pre-literate skills are related to strategy use and success in later reading using techniques which are sensitive to the actual materials that the children encounter during formal reading instruction in Primary 1 and 2. Of particular interest is the interplay between formal reading instruction, reading strategy and the development of phonological awareness. Implicit and explicit forms of phonological processing are distinguished for both phonemes and rimes. Excellent implicit rhyming skills are observed at the nursery stage but this does not translate into either an explicit, meta-awareness of the large rime units or the use of rime-based decoding in Primary 1. Instead, a ‘mixed’ method of reading instruction (letter knowledge plus sight vocabulary) appears to be linked to the emergence of an explicit awareness of phonemes and the use of these small units in decoding. By Primary 2, however, improvements in explicit rhyming skills are evident together with emerging sensitivity to rime frequency in nonword reading. The role of reading instruction, the nature of the English orthography and the prerequisites for large- and small-unit decoding are considered in interpreting the results.

Publications:

Duncan, L.G., Seymour, P.H.K., & Hill, S. (1997). How important are rhyme and

analogy in beginning reading? Cognition, 63, 171-208.

Duncan, L.G., Seymour, P.H.K., & Hill, S. (submitted). A small to large unit progression

in metaphonological awareness and reading? The Quarterly Journal of

Experimental Psychology (Section A).

Duncan, L.G. & Seymour, P.H.K. (in preparation). Longitudinal interactions between

epi- and meta-phonological awareness and reading development. Invited

chapter for N.A. Badian (Ed.) Prediction and Prevention of Reading Failure.

Parkton, Maryland: The York Press.

Seymour, P.H.K. & Duncan, L.G. (1997). Small versus large unit theories of reading

acquisition. Dyslexia, 3, 125-134.

Seymour, P.H.K., Duncan, L.G. & Bolik, F.M. (in press). Rhymes and phonemes in

the Common Unit task: Replications and implications for beginning reading.

Journal of Research in Reading.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

UK

Principal investigator(s): Philip H. K. Seymour

Lynne G. Duncan

Address: University of Dundee

Department of Psychology

UK- Dundee DD1 4HN

UNITED KINGDOM

E-mail-address of the contact-person: l.g.duncan@dundee.ac.uk

Title of study:

The influence of syllables on early literacy acquisition in Britain and France.

Key words:

reading acquisition phonological awareness cross-linguistic differences

Beginning date of study (month, year): 01-98

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 06-99

Number of completed waves: 4

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 6

Time interval between waves (average): 3 mths.

Maximum sample size: 166

Size of core sample: 23

Age range at first data collection: 3 - 11 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

mono- and multi-syllabic word reading

 

mono- and multi-syllabic word spelling

 

mono- and multi-syllabic nonword reading

 

mono- and multisyllabic nonword spelling

 

sound segmentation

phonological awareness

rhyme production

phonological awareness

common unit task

phonological awareness

 

 

Abstract:

The project assesses the impact of syllabic units on phonological awareness and reading development in young native speakers of English and French. Children in the pre-literate, beginning and intermediate stages of literacy acquisition will be tested in each country. As English and French differ with respect to syllable boundaries and stress assignment, two factors known to affect the phonological awareness of adults, the outcome will have implications for current models of reading development which neglect multisyllabic phonology and literacy.

Publications:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

UK

Principal investigator(s):

Margaret Snowling

Dorothy Bishop

Address: University of York

Department of Psychology

York Y010 SDD

UK

E-mail-address of the contact-person: mts19@york.ac.uk

Title of study:

Pre-school speech and language impairments - follow up in adolescence.

Key words:

long-term effects of training speech processing

Beginning date of study (month, year): 1981

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 1996

Number of completed waves: 5

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 5

Time interval between waves (average): first three ~ 1 yr., then 3 yrs. + 7 yrs.

Maximum sample size: 82

Size of core sample: 70

Age range at first data collection: 4;0 - 5;6 yrs.

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

WORD (Wechsler Objective Reading Dimension)

reading (basic word recognition), spelling, reading comprehension

Graded Nonword Reading Test

decoding skills

WISC-3

IQ - general cognitive ability

spoonerisms

phonological awareness

nonword repetition

phonological processing

CELF-R recalling sentences

sentence memory

BPVS

receptive vocabulary

McKenna & Warrington: Picture Naming Test

expressive vocabulary

Test of the Reception of Grammar (TROG)

comprehension

author & title & magazine recognition

[?] exposure

Neale Analysis of Reading Ability

reading accuracy & comprehension

BPVS

receptive vocabulary

Renfrew´s Bus Story

expressive language

WISC-R

performance IQ

% consonants correct

expressive phonology

nonword reading & spelling

phonological skills

Vernon Spelling Test

spelling

 

 

Abstract:

This study followed up the progress of a cohort of 71 pre-schoolers with language impairment at school leaving age (15 years). Language and literacy outcomes were assessed as were educational and psycho-social outcomes. Papers are currently being prepared for publication.

Publications:

Stothard, S.E., Snowling, M.J., Bishop, D.V.M., Chipchase, B. & Kaplan, C. (1998). Language impaired pre-schoolers: A follow-up in adolescence. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 41, 407-418.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

UK

Principal investigator(s):

Joy Stackhouse

Nata Goulandris

Liz Nathan

Maggie Snowling

Address: University College London

Department of Human Communication Science

Chandler House, 2 Wakefield Street

UK-London, WC1N 1PG

UNITED KINGDOM

E-mail-address of the contact-person: j.stackhouse.ucl.ac.uk

Title of study:

The relationship between speech disorders and literacy problems: identification of the at-risk children.

Key words:

language abilities reading spelling phonological awareness speech processing prediction of reading and spelling

Beginning date of study (month, year): 09-95

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 12-98

Number of completed waves: 3

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 3

Time interval between waves (average): 1 yr.

Maximum sample size: 100

Size of core sample: 91

Age range at first data collection: 3;11 - 5;04

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? no

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other: experimental study

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

WPSSI-R (Wechsler 1992): picture completion, block design

non-verbal skills

Test for Reception of Grammar (Bishop 1983)

receptive language skills

British Picture Vocabulary Scale (Dunn et al. 1982)

receptive vocabulary

Rengrew Action Picture Test (Rengrew 1988)

expressive language

Rengrew Bus Story (Rengrew 1995)

expressive language

Snowling Naming Test (Snowling unpublished)

expressive naming

Word / Nonword repetition (Dept. Human Communication Science unpublished)

speech output

Low Frequency Word / Nonword Repetition (D.H.C.S. unpublished)

speech output

Word / Nonword Speech rate (DHCS unpublished, Hulme unpublished)

speech rate

Auditory Discrimination Picture Task (DHCS unpublished)

input skills / accuracy of phonological representations

Auditory Discrimination ABX Task (DHCS unpublished)

auditory discrimination of nonwords

Auditory Discrimination - same / different Task (Bridgeman & Snowling 1988)

auditory discrimination

Rhyme Production (DHCS unpublished)

rhyme generation

Rhyme Detection (DHCS unpublished)

detection of rhyme

Rhyme Oddity (Snowling unpublished)

detection of rhyme

Phoneme Competition Task (Muter, Hulme, Snowling 1997)

supplying the final phoneme of a picture

Phoneme Deletion Task (DHCS unpublished)

deleting word initial and word final phonemes

letter knowledge

letter names and sounds

WISC III (Wechsler 1992): picture completion, block design

non-verbal skills (for 6 year olds)

BAS single word reading (Elliott, Murray & Pearson 1983)

single word reading

Celf-R Recalling Sentences (Senel, Wiig, Secerd, 1980)

Sentence repetition

Semantic fluency (DHCS unpublished)

Generating words by semantic category

Alliteration fluency (DHCS unpublished)

Generating words by phoneme category

BAS spelling (Elliott, Murray & Pearson 1983)

Spelling single words.

Graded Nonword Reading Test (Snowling, Stothard & McLean 1996)

Nonword reading

Nonword spelling (Goulandris unpublished)

Nonword spelling

Spelling from pictures (DHCS unpublished)

Spelling animal pictures

Neale Analysis of Reading Ability (1989)

Reading comprehension

Edinburgh Articulation Test (Anthony et al 1971)

Edinburgh Articulation Test (Anthony et al 1971)

 

Abstract:

Children with speech problems often have difficulty with acquiring literacy skills (Bird, Bishop and Freeman 1995, Stackhouse and Wells 1997). However, children with phonological difficulties form a heterogeneous population with both a wide variety of speech processing ability and a range of literacy outcomes.

A four year longitudinal study examining the speech processing and literacy development of children with speech difficulties has been carried out. The participants included fifty children with significant speech difficulties in the absence of structural or neurological abnormality who were attending speech and language therapy. They were matched to fifty normally developing children on the basis of age, non-verbal IQ, gender and educational background. The children were aged 4.5 when first seen; all had a non-verbal IQ within the normal range, had no current hearing problems and were all monolingual speakers of English. The children were seen at three time points: at mean ages 4.5, 5.5 and 6.5. They were assessed on a range of speech processing, language and literacy tasks (e.g. comprehension of language, expressive language, vocabulary, speech output tasks, speech input tasks, letter knowledge, phonological awareness tasks, reading and spelling tasks).

Results show significant differences between the two groups at age four on the majority of measures. However, it was the children with both speech and language difficulties who showed the most pervasive speech processing problems which included deficits in the auditory domain. These differences persist at age five when there is also a significant difference between the groups on emerging spelling skills. At age six, differences have emerged on reading as well as spelling measures. However, performance of the speech impaired group is variable with some children acquiring early literacy skills well.

Acknowledgements

This project is funded by the North Thames Regional Health Authority and has been set up in collaboration with Camden and Islington Community Health Care Services NHS Trust; the Nuffield Hearing and Speech Centre, London; Barnet Health Care NHS Trust, and Enfield Community Care NHS Trust..

Publications:

Nathan, L., Stackhouse, J. & Goulandris, N. (1998) Speech processing abilities in children with speech vs speech and language difficulties. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, Volume 33, Supplement: Proceedings of the College's 1998 Conference Liverpool, 15-17 October 1998; 457-462.

Stackhouse, J. (in prep). Barriers to literacy development in children with speech and language difficulties. In Bishop, D. & Leonard, L. (Eds). Speech and language impairments: from theory to practice. Hove: Pschology Press.

Stackhouse, J., Nathan, L. & Goulandris, N. (1997). Speech processing skills in children with specific speech difficulties: phase 1 of a longitudinal study, Dept of Human Communication Science, Work in Progress, 7, 95-119.

C

UK

Principal investigator(s):

Rhona W. Stainthorp

Rhona W. Stainthorp

Address: London University

Child Development and Learning, Institute of Education

20, Bedford Way

UK-WC1H 0AL

UNITED KINGDOM

E-mail-address of the contact-person: r.stainthorp@ioe.ac.uk

Title of study:

Young Early Readers

Key words:

precocious readers phonological sensitivity early literacy development family literacy

Beginning date of study (month, year): 09-93

Date of latest data collection (month, year): 07-96

Number of completed waves: 4

Total number of waves (at the end of the study): 4

Time interval between waves (average): 12 mths.

Maximum sample size: 29

Size of core sample: 29

Age range at first data collection: 4;6 - 5;5

Data computerized? yes

Are data accessible to other researchers? yes

Type of study:

Correlation study: yes

Intervention study: no

Other:

The following six items concern only intervention studies:

No. of treatment groups:

Type of treatment group(s):

No. of control groups:

Type of control group(s):

Duration of intervention (weeks or month):

Intensity (hrs per day, week or month):

Test instruments:

Name/label of the test instrument(s):

Purpose:

British Picture Vocabulary Scales

assessment of the level of vocabulary development and reasonable estimate of cognitive ability

British Ability Scales Word Reading Test

assessment of wor